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Journal Article

GREEN-MAC-LCCP®: A Tool for Assessing Life Cycle Greenhouse Emissions of Alternative Refrigerants

The GREEN-MAC-LCCP© [Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental - Mobile Air Condition - Life Cycle Climate Performance] model described here is an evolution of a previous GM model that assesses the lifecycle energy and GHG emissions associated with the production, use and disposal of alternative refrigerants and MAC components. This new model reduces the complexity of inputs and provides a consistent output analysis. This model includes Microsoft Excel Visual Basic© code to automatically make the calculations once inputs are complete.
Technical Paper

Tank-to-Wheels Preliminary Assessment of Advanced Powertrain and Alternative Fuel Vehicles for China

Well-to-Wheels analyses are important tools that provide a rigorous examination and quantify the environmental burdens associated with fuel production and fuel consumption during the vehicle use phase. Such assessments integrate the results obtained from the Well-to-Tank (WtT) and the Tank-to-Wheels (TtW) analysis components. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary Tank-to-Wheels assessment of the benefits associated with the introduction of alternative powertrains and fuels in the Chinese market by the year 2015 as compared to the results obtained with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). An emphasis is given on the vehicles powered by those fuels that have the potential to play a major role in the Chinese auto-sector, such as: M10, M85, E10, E85, Di-methyl Ether (DME) and Coal-to-Liquids (CTL). An important conclusion of this report is that hybridization reduces fuel consumption in all propulsion systems.