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Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Technical Paper

Advanced Aluminum and Aluminum-Lithium Solutions for Derivative and Next Generation Aerospace Structures

2012-09-10
2012-01-1874
The challenging performance and affordability goals of next generation aircraft have accelerated the demand for advanced structural materials and concepts capable of achieving significant weight and cost (acquisition and operational) reduction. To meet these aggressive weight and structural maintenance reduction targets, future aircraft will require structural solutions that provide increased strength, damage tolerance and corrosion resistance. Alcoa has developed advanced aluminum alloys and third generation aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys with exceptional performance and durability capability. This presentation first introduces the basic properties of the new 2xxx and 7xxx series aerospace aluminum and third generation Al-Li alloys possessing improved strength, fatigue life, crack propagation, fracture toughness, corrosion resistance, and, in the case of Al-Li alloys, reduced density and increased modulus.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0981
Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Clamp Load Loss in Aluminum Threads due to Thermal Cycling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0989
A DFSS study identified a new mechanism for clamp load loss in aluminum threads due to thermal cycling. In bolted joints tightened to yield, the difference in thermal expansion between the aluminum and steel threads can result in a loss of clamp load with each thermal cycle. This clamp load loss is significantly greater than the loss that can be explained by creep alone. A math model was created and used to conduct a robust analysis. This analysis led to an understanding of the design factors necessary to reduce the cyclic clamp load loss in the aluminum threads. This understanding was then used to create optimized design solutions that satisfy constraints common to powertrain applications. Estimations of clamp load loss due to thermal cycling from the math model will be presented. The estimates of the model will be compared to observed physical test data. A robust analysis, including S/N and mean effect summary will be presented.
Technical Paper

Local Mechanical Property Variations of AZ31B Magnesium Sheet due to Elevated Temperature Forming

2009-04-20
2009-01-0864
The influence of elevated temperature forming on local mechanical properties of AZ31B magnesium (Mg) sheet material was investigated. The Mg sheet was formed into a closure component with high temperature gas pressure at 485°C. Miniature tensile testing specimens were cut from selected areas of the component where different levels of thinning occurred. The specimens were strained in tension to fracture using a miniature tensile stage. The two-dimensional strain distribution in the necking region along with true stress-true strain curves were computed using a digital image correlation technique to assess the influence of the forming-induced thinning on tensile strength and percent elongation at fracture.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Spot Weld Testing

2009-04-20
2009-01-0032
Static and dynamic strength tests were performed on spot welded specimens made of dual-phase (DP) 780 and mild steels (DQSK). Lap-shear (LS) and cross-tension (CT) as well as a new mixed mode specimen were studied using MTS hydraulic universal testing machine for static tests and drop weight tower for dynamic tests. Three weld nugget sizes were made for each steel and CT and LS. DP780 with one weld size was also tested in mixed mode. Load and displacement as functions of time and fracture mode of the spot welds were recorded. Representative data are reported in this paper.
Journal Article

Hot Surface Ignition of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Mixtures

2009-04-20
2009-01-0016
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of hot surface ignition (HSI) testing and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) auto-ignition testing (AIT) performed on gasoline fuel mixtures containing varying levels of ethanol. With the increased consumer interest in ethanol-based fuels as a measure of reducing the United States dependence on foreign oil, the use of E85 and other ethanol/petroleum fuel blends is on the increase. While some autoignition data for summer and winter blends of gasoline on hot surfaces exist beyond the standard ASTM E659-78 test procedure [1], there is little data on ethanol-based fuels and their HSI characteristics.
Journal Article

Chevrolet Sequel: Reinventing the Automobile

2008-04-14
2008-01-0421
Sequel is the third vehicle in GM's Reinvention of the Automobile and is the first zero emissions passenger vehicle to drive more than 300 miles on public roads without refueling or recharging. It is purpose-built around the hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems and uses the skateboard principle introduced in the Autonomy vision concept and the Hy-wire proof-of-concept vehicles. Sequel's aluminum structure, Flexray controlled chassis-by-wire systems and AWD system comprising a single front electric motor and two rear wheel motors make it, perhaps, the most technically advanced automobile ever built. The paper describes the vehicle's design and performance characteristics.
Journal Article

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1156
A task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee continues to pursue the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. The program is a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and is supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels, but correlations between laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. The primary objective of this project is to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates with in-service performance. In this paper the type, extent, and chemical nature of cosmetic corrosion observed in the on-vehicle exposures are compared with those from some of the commonly used laboratory tests
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Prestrain Effect on Fatigue of DP600 Sheet Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-0995
The component being formed experiences some type of prestrain that may have an effect on its fatigue strength. This study investigated the forming effects on material fatigue strength of dual phase sheet steel (DP600) subjected to various uniaxial prestrains. In the as-received condition, DP600 specimens were tested for tensile properties to determine the prestraining level based on the uniform elongation corresponding to the maximum strength of DP600 on the stress-strain curve. Three different levels of prestrain at 90%, 70% and 50% of the uniform elongation were applied to uniaxial prestrain specimens for tensile tests and fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were conducted with strain controlled to obtain fatigue properties and compare them with the as-received DP600. The fatigue test results were presented with strain amplitude and Neuber's factor.
Technical Paper

Forming Simulation and Validation of Laminated Steel Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-1675
Laminated steel has been increasingly applied in automotive products for vibration and noise reduction. One of the major challenges the laminated steel poses is how to simulate forming processes and predict formability severity with acceptable correlation in production environment, which is caused by the fact that a thin polymer core possesses mechanical properties with significant difference in comparison with that of steel skins. In this study a cantilever beam test is conducted for investigating flexural behavior of the laminated steel and a finite element modeling technique is proposed for forming simulation of the laminated steel. Two production panels are analyzed for formability prediction and the results are compared with those from the try-out for validation. This procedure demonstrates that the prediction and try-out are in good agreement for both panels.
Technical Paper

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Press Hardened Boron Steel using Digital Image Correlation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0790
Tensile measurements and fracture surface analysis of low carbon heat-treated boron steel are reported. Tensile coupons were quasi-statically deformed to fracture in a miniature tensile testing stage with custom data acquisition software. Strain contours were computed via a digital image correlation method that allowed placement of a digital strain gage in the necking region. True stress-true strain data corresponding to the standard tensile testing method are presented for comparison with previous measurements. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were identified.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0417
Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

Software Testing Strategies for Model-Based Chassis Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0505
Model-based design and development is emerging in the automotive industry, largely revealing its popularity in chassis control systems [1]. Although it is an efficient and accepted design tool for chassis systems, proper processes and strategies need to be in place to ensure the integrity and correctness of the production software. This paper describes software testing strategies for complex chassis control systems in a model-based environment. In detail, it highlights various testing methods for different phases, such as unit testing and integration testing. It will also address issues and challenges that were faced with each method and propose possible solutions.
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