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Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Exterior Sound Fields by High Frequency Boundary Element Method

With Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proven to be a powerful tool for airborne noise analysis, the capability of predicting the exterior sound field around a vehicle at high frequencies (the load case in the SEA analysis) is of particular interest to OEMs and suppliers. This paper employs the High Frequency Boundary Element Method (HFBEM) to simulate the scattered exterior sound field distribution due to a monopole source. It is shown that the proposed method is able to efficiently predict the spatial and frequency averaged sound pressure levels reasonably well up to 10 kHz, even at points in the near field of the vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automatic Fire Suppression Systems in Full Scale Vehicle Fire Tests and Static Vehicle Fire Tests

A prototype fire suppression system was tested in one full-scale vehicle crash tests and three static vehicle fire tests. The prototype fire suppression system consisted of 2 Solid Propellant Gas Generators and two optical detectors. These components were installed on the hood of the test vehicle. A vehicle crash test and a series of static vehicle fire tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this prototype fire suppression systems in extinguishing fires in the engine compartment of a crashed vehicle
Technical Paper

A Subsystem Crash Test Methodology for Retention of Convenience Organizer Equipment System in Rear Impact

Any equipment system or vehicle component like the Convenience Organizer storage system needs to be retained within the cargo compartment without intruding into the passenger compartment for occupant safety during a high speed impact. This paper outlines a test method to evaluate the retention of such a system in a rear impact environment. The method utilizes a low speed barrier to simulate a high speed RMB (Rear Moving Barrier) impact. The content of the low speed RMB impact test setup was developed utilizing DYNA3D analytical simulation results from a full vehicle model subjected to high-speed RMB impact. The retention of the equipment developed through this test method was confirmed on a full scale rear impact test.
Technical Paper

Design of a Full-Scale Impact System for Analysis of Vehicle Pedestrian Collisions

The complexity of vehicle-pedestrian collisions necessitates extensive validation of pedestrian computational models. While body components can be individually simulated, overall validation of human pedestrian models requires full-scale testing with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). This paper presents the development of a full-scale pedestrian impact test plan and experimental design that will be used to perform PMHS tests to validate human pedestrian models. The test plan and experimental design is developed based on the analysis of a combination of literature review, multi-body modeling, and epidemiologic studies. The proposed system has proven effective in testing an anthropometrically correct rescue dummy in multiple instances. The success of these tests suggests the potential for success in a full-scale pedestrian impact test using a PMHS.
Technical Paper

Significant Factors in Height of Force Measurements for Vehicle Collision Compatibility

The concept of height of force has been suggested by some researchers as one possible parameter defining the structural interaction probability between vehicles of different sizes. This proposed parameter was defined as the vertical centroid of forces exerted on a flat barrier surface when a vehicle crashes into the barrier. It is therefore measured as a function of elapsed time since crash. In this paper, the height of force is obtained from theoretical calculations and also measured in crash tests at 56 km/h against barriers instrumented with an array of load cells. It is observed that the measured values of height of force have significant errors which are dependent on factors other than the crash conditions and the properties of the vehicle's structure and geometry. These factors need to be taken into account in future discussions of using the height of force or the average height of force as an indicator of vehicle compatibility.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Static and Impact Strength of Fatigue Damaged Spot Welds

As the automotive industry becomes more concerned with the crash performance of automobiles, the behavior of used vehicles becomes an interesting subject. In this work, the effect of aging on spot welded joints was simulated by applying fatigue loading to the samples. Samples were then subjected to quasi-static and impact tests to measure the effect of fatigue aging to the strength of the samples. The results show (a) a reduction in the strength of the test samples under impact conditions, (b) no obvious reduction in quasi-static conditions, and (c) significant reduction in strength if cracks in the welds were initiated during the fatigue aging process.
Technical Paper

Relationship of Crash Test Procedures to Vehicle Compatibility

This paper examines the effect that test barriers currently used for frontal and side impact tests have had on collision compatibility between different-sized vehicles. The peak force levels generated by the vehicles’ front structures are one of the significant factors in determining vehicle compatibility. It is shown from principles of mechanics that the use of fixed barriers as a test device may lead to higher force levels for front ends of larger vehicles and thus increase the incompatibility between large and small vehicles. Review of data from various sources supports this conclusion that the peak force levels of vehicles’ front ends have increased in proportion to their test mass. Available crash data is also examined for a relationship between NCAP ratings of vehicles and the likelihood of serious and fatal injuries to occupants of those vehicles. These data do not show any relationship between the frontal NCAP ratings of vehicles and their rate of serious or fatal injuries.
Technical Paper

Development and Field Performance of Indy Race Car Head Impact Padding

The close-fitting cockpit of the modern Indy car single seat race car has the potential to provide a high level of head and neck impact protection in rear and side impacts. Crash investigation has shown that a wide variety of materials have been used as the padding for these cockpits and, as a result, produced varying outcomes in crashes. Additionally, these pads have not always been positioned for optimal performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the head impact performance of a variety of energy-absorbing padding materials under impact conditions typical of Indy car rear impacts and to identify superior materials and methods of improving their performance as race car head pads. An extensive series of tests with the helmeted Hybrid III test dummy head and neck on an impact mini-sled was conducted to explore head padding concepts.
Technical Paper

The Steering Characterizing Functions (SCFs) and Their Use in Steering System Specification, Simulation, and Synthesis

A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
Technical Paper

Rationale for Technology Selections in GM's PNGV Precept Concept Car Based on Systems Analysis

The CY2000 cornerstone goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is the demonstration in CY 2000 of a 5-passenger vehicle with fuel economy of up 80 mpg (3 l/100km). As a PNGV partner, GM will demonstrate a technology-demonstration concept vehicle, the Precept, having a lightweight aluminum-intensive body, hybrid-electric propulsion system and a portfolio of efficient vehicle technologies. This paper describes: 1) the strategy for the vehicle design including mass requirements, 2) the selection of dual axle application of regenerative braking and electric traction, and 3) the complementary perspective on energy management strategy. This paper outlines information developed through systems analysis that drove technology selections. The systems analyses relied on vehicle simulation models to estimate fuel economy associated with technology selections. Modeling analyses included consideration of both federal test requirements and more severe driving situations.
Technical Paper

Driver Understanding and Recognition of Automotive ISO Symbols

This study assesses the understanding and recognition, by U.S. drivers, of the 25 automotive ISO symbols specified in SAE Standard J1048. A two-part survey was administered to 505 volunteers at a Secretary of State's office located in a Detroit suburb. Percentage results for symbol understanding indicated low levels of understanding for many symbols; percentage results for symbol recognition were generally much higher for all symbols. The effects of gender, age, and education level on the percentage results are summarized.