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Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

2016-11-07
2016-22-0001
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0458
A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

2006-10-16
2006-01-3314
The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Exterior Sound Fields by High Frequency Boundary Element Method

2005-05-16
2005-01-2328
With Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proven to be a powerful tool for airborne noise analysis, the capability of predicting the exterior sound field around a vehicle at high frequencies (the load case in the SEA analysis) is of particular interest to OEMs and suppliers. This paper employs the High Frequency Boundary Element Method (HFBEM) to simulate the scattered exterior sound field distribution due to a monopole source. It is shown that the proposed method is able to efficiently predict the spatial and frequency averaged sound pressure levels reasonably well up to 10 kHz, even at points in the near field of the vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Relationship of Crash Test Procedures to Vehicle Compatibility

2003-03-03
2003-01-0900
This paper examines the effect that test barriers currently used for frontal and side impact tests have had on collision compatibility between different-sized vehicles. The peak force levels generated by the vehicles’ front structures are one of the significant factors in determining vehicle compatibility. It is shown from principles of mechanics that the use of fixed barriers as a test device may lead to higher force levels for front ends of larger vehicles and thus increase the incompatibility between large and small vehicles. Review of data from various sources supports this conclusion that the peak force levels of vehicles’ front ends have increased in proportion to their test mass. Available crash data is also examined for a relationship between NCAP ratings of vehicles and the likelihood of serious and fatal injuries to occupants of those vehicles. These data do not show any relationship between the frontal NCAP ratings of vehicles and their rate of serious or fatal injuries.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Countermeasures and Packaging Limits for the FMVSS201U

2003-03-03
2003-01-0329
Different countermeasure designs for reducing the HIC (d) and to comply with FMVSS201U have been evaluated in many component-level studies by suppliers and OEMs. This study presents guidelines to support future countermeasure and interior designs. FMVSS201U has changed the way OEMs design interiors of the vehicles today. Most recently, much more work is being done to find ways to design interiors of the vehicles that comply with FMVSS201U while keeping the interiors aesthetically pleasing, attaining driver comfort and meeting driver visibility requirements. Introduction of side-rail airbags has further affected countermeasure design and packaging. This study focuses on several countermeasure designs in the side-rail region as used in a mid-sized vehicle implemented to meet FMVSS201U requirements and their efficiency with respect to Head Injury Criterion (HIC) reduction given a fixed packaging space.
Technical Paper

Development and Field Performance of Indy Race Car Head Impact Padding

2001-11-01
2001-22-0019
The close-fitting cockpit of the modern Indy car single seat race car has the potential to provide a high level of head and neck impact protection in rear and side impacts. Crash investigation has shown that a wide variety of materials have been used as the padding for these cockpits and, as a result, produced varying outcomes in crashes. Additionally, these pads have not always been positioned for optimal performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the head impact performance of a variety of energy-absorbing padding materials under impact conditions typical of Indy car rear impacts and to identify superior materials and methods of improving their performance as race car head pads. An extensive series of tests with the helmeted Hybrid III test dummy head and neck on an impact mini-sled was conducted to explore head padding concepts.
Technical Paper

The Steering Characterizing Functions (SCFs) and Their Use in Steering System Specification, Simulation, and Synthesis

2001-03-05
2001-01-1353
A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
Technical Paper

Rationale for Technology Selections in GM's PNGV Precept Concept Car Based on Systems Analysis

2000-04-02
2000-01-1567
The CY2000 cornerstone goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is the demonstration in CY 2000 of a 5-passenger vehicle with fuel economy of up 80 mpg (3 l/100km). As a PNGV partner, GM will demonstrate a technology-demonstration concept vehicle, the Precept, having a lightweight aluminum-intensive body, hybrid-electric propulsion system and a portfolio of efficient vehicle technologies. This paper describes: 1) the strategy for the vehicle design including mass requirements, 2) the selection of dual axle application of regenerative braking and electric traction, and 3) the complementary perspective on energy management strategy. This paper outlines information developed through systems analysis that drove technology selections. The systems analyses relied on vehicle simulation models to estimate fuel economy associated with technology selections. Modeling analyses included consideration of both federal test requirements and more severe driving situations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Compatibility - Analysis of the Factors Influencing Side Impact Occupant Injury

1999-03-01
1999-01-0067
This paper discusses a study conducted by GM to better understand the factors that influence injury potential in vehicle-to-vehicle side impacts. A number of other studies have been done which focus primarily on frontal vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility. GM focused on side impact compatibility in this study due to the risk of harm generally associated with this type of crash. Real world field performance was studied through an extensive six-state field analysis of recent model year (‘94+) vehicles. Of particular interest in this study was an efficacy analysis of the MVSS 214 dynamic side impact standard, which was phased-in starting with some 1994 model year passenger cars. Physical side impact crash testing of a 1997 passenger car was used to investigate the relationship of impacting mass, speed, geometric profile and stiffness on side impact intrusion and occupant injury.
Technical Paper

Driver Understanding and Recognition of Automotive ISO Symbols

1988-02-01
880056
This study assesses the understanding and recognition, by U.S. drivers, of the 25 automotive ISO symbols specified in SAE Standard J1048. A two-part survey was administered to 505 volunteers at a Secretary of State's office located in a Detroit suburb. Percentage results for symbol understanding indicated low levels of understanding for many symbols; percentage results for symbol recognition were generally much higher for all symbols. The effects of gender, age, and education level on the percentage results are summarized.
Technical Paper

Rollover Crash Tests-The Influence of Roof Strength on Injury Mechanics

1985-12-01
851734
Eight lateral dolly rollover tests were conducted on 1983 Chevrolet Malibusata nominal speed of 51.5 km/h (32 mi/h). Four of the vehicles had rollcages, and four had standard production roofs. Unrestrained outboard front GM Hybrid ill dummies with head and neck transducers were used. Numerous cameras documented the vehicle and dummy movements. Detailed vehicle kinematics data allowed quantitative analysis of the conditions for head and neck loads. For both roof structures, the dummies moved upward and outward from their seats due to rotation and acceleration of the vehicle. High head/neck loads were measured when the head contacted a part of the car experiencing a large change in velocity, often that part of the car which struck the ground. The results of this work indicate that roof strength is not an important factor in the mechanics of head/neck injuries in rollover collisions for unrestrained occupants.
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