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Journal Article

Design and Development of a Switching Roller Finger Follower for Discrete Variable Valve Lift in Gasoline Engine Applications

Global environmental and economic concerns regarding increasing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission are driving changes to legislative regulations and consumer demand. As regulations become more stringent, advanced engine technologies must be developed and implemented to realize desired benefits. Discrete variable valve lift technology is a targeted means to achieve improved fuel economy in gasoline engines. By limiting intake air flow with an engine valve, as opposed to standard throttling, road-load pumping losses are reduced resulting in improved fuel economy. This paper focuses on the design and development of a switching roller finger follower system which enables two mode discrete variable valve lift on end pivot roller finger follower valvetrains. The system configuration presented includes a four-cylinder passenger car engine with an electro-hydraulic oil control valve, dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster, and switching roller finger follower.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Observer Design for Fuel Reforming in HCCI Engines Using a UEGO Sensor

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion shows a high potential of reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Many works have been devoted to extend the HCCI operation range in order to maximize its fuel economy benefit. Among them, fuel injection strategies that use fuel reforming to increase the cylinder charge temperature to facilitate HCCI combustion at low engine loads have been proposed. However, to estimate and control an optimal amount of fuel reforming in the cylinder of an HCCI engine proves to be challenging because the fuel reforming process depends on many engine variables. It is conceivable that the amount of fuel reforming can be estimated since it correlates with the combustion phasing which in turn can be measured using a cylinder pressure sensor.
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Engine with Direct Injection

General Motors' 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 engine has been upgraded to provide substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions for the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. The fundamental change was a switch from traditional manifold-port fuel injection (MPFI) to spark ignition direct injection (SIDI). Additional modifications include enhanced cylinder head and intake manifold air flow capacities, optimized camshaft profiles, and increased compression ratio. The SIDI fuel system presented the greatest opportunities for system development and optimization in order to maximize improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions. In particular, the injector flow rate, orifice geometry, and spray pattern were selected to provide the optimum balance of high power and torque, low fuel consumption, stable combustion, low smoke emissions, and robust tolerance to injector plugging.
Technical Paper

Tank-to-Wheels Preliminary Assessment of Advanced Powertrain and Alternative Fuel Vehicles for China

Well-to-Wheels analyses are important tools that provide a rigorous examination and quantify the environmental burdens associated with fuel production and fuel consumption during the vehicle use phase. Such assessments integrate the results obtained from the Well-to-Tank (WtT) and the Tank-to-Wheels (TtW) analysis components. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary Tank-to-Wheels assessment of the benefits associated with the introduction of alternative powertrains and fuels in the Chinese market by the year 2015 as compared to the results obtained with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). An emphasis is given on the vehicles powered by those fuels that have the potential to play a major role in the Chinese auto-sector, such as: M10, M85, E10, E85, Di-methyl Ether (DME) and Coal-to-Liquids (CTL). An important conclusion of this report is that hybridization reduces fuel consumption in all propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Exterior Sound Fields by High Frequency Boundary Element Method

With Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proven to be a powerful tool for airborne noise analysis, the capability of predicting the exterior sound field around a vehicle at high frequencies (the load case in the SEA analysis) is of particular interest to OEMs and suppliers. This paper employs the High Frequency Boundary Element Method (HFBEM) to simulate the scattered exterior sound field distribution due to a monopole source. It is shown that the proposed method is able to efficiently predict the spatial and frequency averaged sound pressure levels reasonably well up to 10 kHz, even at points in the near field of the vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine with a High-Squish Piston

This work describes an experimental investigation on the stratified combustion and engine-out emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition, direct-injection, spray-guided engine employing an outward-opening injector, an optimized high-squish, bowled piston, and a variable swirl valve control. Experiments were performed using two different outward-opening injectors with 80° and 90° spray angles, each having a variable injector pintle-lift control allowing different rates of injection. The fuel consumption of the engine was found to improve with decreasing air-swirl motion, increasing spark-plug length, increasing spark energy, and decreasing effective rate of injection, but to be relatively insensitive to fuel-rail pressure in the range of 10-20 MPa. At optimal injection and ignition timings, no misfires were observed in 30,000 consecutive cycles.
Technical Paper

Aggregating Technologies for Reduced Fuel Consumption: A Review of the Technical Content in the 2002 National Research Council Report on CAFE

The National Research Council (NRC) recently published a report entitled “Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards” intended to help U.S. policymakers in the formulation of CAFE policy. In the Report, the NRC projects fuel consumption reductions from the application of a wide range of engine, transmission, and vehicle technologies. The Report employs a simple multiplicative method to aggregate the effects of multiple technologies on fuel consumption. In this paper, a basic energy balance calculation is used to examine the NRC results against theoretical limits. Theoretical limits are calculated using measured and simulated breakdowns of system energy losses incurred during vehicle operation on EPA driving cycles. This analysis demonstrates the inherently optimistic results produced by simple aggregation methodologies. Methods for enhancing the accuracy of the technology-aggregation process are proposed.
Technical Paper

The Steering Characterizing Functions (SCFs) and Their Use in Steering System Specification, Simulation, and Synthesis

A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
Technical Paper

Rationale for Technology Selections in GM's PNGV Precept Concept Car Based on Systems Analysis

The CY2000 cornerstone goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is the demonstration in CY 2000 of a 5-passenger vehicle with fuel economy of up 80 mpg (3 l/100km). As a PNGV partner, GM will demonstrate a technology-demonstration concept vehicle, the Precept, having a lightweight aluminum-intensive body, hybrid-electric propulsion system and a portfolio of efficient vehicle technologies. This paper describes: 1) the strategy for the vehicle design including mass requirements, 2) the selection of dual axle application of regenerative braking and electric traction, and 3) the complementary perspective on energy management strategy. This paper outlines information developed through systems analysis that drove technology selections. The systems analyses relied on vehicle simulation models to estimate fuel economy associated with technology selections. Modeling analyses included consideration of both federal test requirements and more severe driving situations.
Technical Paper

Driver Understanding and Recognition of Automotive ISO Symbols

This study assesses the understanding and recognition, by U.S. drivers, of the 25 automotive ISO symbols specified in SAE Standard J1048. A two-part survey was administered to 505 volunteers at a Secretary of State's office located in a Detroit suburb. Percentage results for symbol understanding indicated low levels of understanding for many symbols; percentage results for symbol recognition were generally much higher for all symbols. The effects of gender, age, and education level on the percentage results are summarized.