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Technical Paper

Thermal-Mechanical Durability of DOC and DPF After-treatment System for Light Heavy Pickup Truck Application

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s heavy duty diesel emission standard was tightened beginning from 2007 with the introduction of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Most heavy duty diesel applications were required to equip Particulate Matter (PM) after-treatment systems to meet the new tighter, emission standard. Systems utilizing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed-Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) are a mainstream of modern diesel PM after-treatment systems. To ensure appropriate performance of the system, periodic cleaning of the PM trapped in DPF by its oxidation (a process called “regeneration”) is necessary. As a result, of this regeneration, DOC’s and DPF’s can be exposed to hundreds of thermal cycles during their lifetime. Therefore, to understand the thermo-mechanical performance of the DOC and DPF is an essential issue to evaluate the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

Application of Hydraulic Body Mounts to Reduce the Freeway Hop Shake of Pickup Trucks

When pickup trucks are driven on concrete paved freeways, freeway hop shake is a major complaint. Freeway hop shake occurs when the vehicle passes over the concrete joints of the freeway which impose in-phase harmonic road inputs. These road inputs excite vehicle modes that degrade ride comfort. The worst shake level occurs when the vehicle speed is such that the road input excites the vehicle 1st bending mode and/or the rear wheel hop mode. The hop and bending mode are very close in frequency. This phenomenon is called freeway hop shake. Automotive manufacturers are searching for ways to mitigate freeway hop shake. There are several ways to reduce the shake amplitude. This paper documents a new approach using hydraulic body mounts to reduce the shake. A full vehicle analytical model was used to determine the root cause of the freeway hop shake.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Challenges for Blended 2-Way SCR/DPF Aftertreatment Technologies

Diesel engines offer better fuel economy compared to their gasoline counterpart, but simultaneous control of NOx and particulates is very challenging. The blended 2-way SCR/DPF is recently emerging as a compact and cost-effective technology to reduce NOx and particulates from diesel exhaust using a single aftertreatment device. By coating SCR catalysts on and inside the walls of the conventional wall-flow filter, the 2-way SCR/DPF eliminates the volume and mass of the conventional SCR device. Compared with the conventional diesel aftertreatment system with a SCR and a DPF, the 2-way SCR/DPF technology offers the potential of significant cost saving and packaging flexibility. In this study, an engine dynamometer test cell was set up to repeatedly load and regenerate the SCR/DPF devices to mimic catalyst aging experienced during periodic high-temperature soot regenerations in the real world.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Cu-Based SCR/DPF Technology for Diesel Exhaust Emission Control

Recently, a new technology, termed 2-way SCR/DPF by the authors, has been developed by several catalyst suppliers for diesel exhaust emission control. Unlike a conventional emission control system consisting of an SCR catalyst followed by a catalyzed DPF, a wall-flow filter is coated with SCR catalysts for controlling both NOx and PM emissions in a single catalytic converter, thus reducing the overall system volume and cost. In this work, the potential and limitations of the Cu/Zeolite-based SCR/DPF technology for meeting future emission standards were evaluated on a pick-up truck equipped with a prototype light-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake Lining Life Using an Energy-Based CAE Approach

Due to competitive pressures and the need to rapidly develop new products for the automotive marketplace, the automotive industry has to rapidly develop and validate automotive subsystems and components. While many CAE tools are employed to decrease the time needed for a number of brake engineering tasks such as stress analysis, brake system sizing, thermo-fluid analysis, and structural dynamics, brake lining wear and the associated concept of “lining life” are still predominantly developed and validated through resource intensive public road vehicle testing. The goal of this paper is to introduce and detail an energy-based, lumped-parameter CAE approach to predict brake lining life in passenger cars and light trucks.
Technical Paper

Further Assessment of Closed-Wall Wind Tunnel Blockage Using CFD

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based wind tunnel blockage correction method proposed in [1] was extended in the present study to production vehicles with detailed underhood and underbody components, fascia and grills. Three different types of vehicles (sedan, SUV, and pickup truck) were considered in the study. While the previous CFD based wind tunnel blockage correction method was for vehicle aerodynamic drag, the blockage effect on vehicle cooling airflow is also included in the present study, and a CFD based blockage correction method for vehicle cooling airflow is proposed. Comparisons were made between the blockage effects for the production vehicles and the blockage effects for the generic vehicles.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulations for Flow Over Pickup Trucks

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the flow field over a pickup truck. The simulation was based on a steady state formulation and the focus of the simulation was to assess the capabilities of the currently used CFD tools for vehicle aerodynamic development for pickup trucks. Detailed comparisons were made between the CFD simulations and the existing experiments for a generic pickup truck. It was found that the flow structures obtained from the CFD calculations are very similar to the corresponding measured mean flows. Furthermore, the surface pressure distributions are captured reasonably well by the CFD analysis. Comparison for aerodynamic drags was carried out for both the generic pickup truck and a production pickup truck. Both the simulations and the measurements show the same trends for the drag as the vehicle geometry changes, This suggests that the steady state CFD simulation can be used to aid the aerodynamic development of pickup trucks.
Technical Paper

Development of an MDB Concept for Crash Compatibility

The essential concepts for developing a moving deformable barrier that may serve as a vehicle surrogate in assessing vehicle compatibility are described in this paper. Although moving deformable barriers have been used for assessing other safety criteria, their purpose in those cases is to reproduce a limited set of responses in the struck vehicle. An MDB for vehicle compatibility however, needs to be able to reproduce the responses of both the vehicles. The present study describes the concept of developing such barriers by generating ‘response corridors’ for the significant variables by nonlinear finite element simulations and then selecting design parameters such that the MDB response is within this corridor. It is observed that the response of the equivalent MDB representing a light truck vehicle is reproducible when response corridors are utilized.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Closed-Wall Wind Tunnel Blockage using CFD

Effects of the wind tunnel blockage in a closed-wall wind tunnel were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow over three generic vehicle models representing a passenger sedan, a sports utility vehicle (SUV), and a pickup truck was solved. The models were placed in a baseline virtual wind tunnel as well as four additional virtual wind tunnels, each with different size cross-sections, providing different levels of wind tunnel blockage. For each vehicle model, the CFD analysis produced an aerodynamic drag coefficient for the vehicle at the blockage free condition as well as the blockage effect increment for the baseline wind tunnel. A CFD based blockage correction method is proposed. Comparisons of this method to some existing blockage correction methods for closed-wall wind tunnel are also presented.
Technical Paper

Development of the SAE Biaxial Wheel Test Load File

Recently published SAE Recommended Practice J2562 - SAE Biaxial Wheel Test standardized the terminology, equipment, and test procedure for the biaxial wheel test. This test was originally presented by Fraunhofer Institut Betriebsfestigkeit - LBF (Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability) in SAE paper 830135 “Automotive Wheels, Method and Procedure for Optimal Design and Testing”. The first release of SAE J2562 included a generic, scalable load file applicable to wheels designed for five to eight passenger vehicles with capacity to carry a proportional amount of luggage or ballast. Future releases of SAE J2562 would include two additional load files; one applicable to light trucks that have substantial cargo capacity and one for sports cars typically limited to two passengers and marginal luggage. This report details the process used to develop the SAE Biaxial Wheel Test Load File for passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation, and Hardware-in-the-Loop Transmission Test System Software Development

This paper describes the development of a generic test cell software designed to overcome many vehicle-component testing difficulties by introducing modern, real-time control and simulation capabilities directly to laboratory test environments. Successfully demonstrated in a transmission test cell system, this software eliminated the need for internal combustion engines (ICE) and test-track vehicles. It incorporated the control of an advanced AC induction motor that electrically simulated the ICE and a DC dynamometer that electrically replicated vehicle loads. Engine behaviors controlled by the software included not only the average crankshaft torque production but also engine inertia and firing pulses, particularly during shifts. Vehicle loads included rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, grade, and more importantly, vehicle inertia corresponding to sport utility, light truck, or passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Near Wake of a Pick-up Truck

The results of an experimental investigation of the flow over a pickup truck are presented. The main objectives of the study are to gain a better understanding of the flow structure in near wake region, and to obtain a detailed quantitative data set for validation of numerical simulations of this flow. Experiments were conducted at moderate Reynolds numbers (∼3×105) in the open return tunnel at the University of Michigan. Measured quantities include: the mean pressure on the symmetry plane, unsteady pressure in the bed, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow in the near wake. The unsteady pressure results show that pressure fluctuations in the forward section of the bed are small and increase significantly at the edge of the tailgate. Pressure fluctuation spectra at the edge of the tailgate show a spectral peak at a Strouhal number of 0.07 and large energy content at very low frequency.
Technical Paper

Corrections for the Pressure Gradient Effect on Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

Effects of the pressure gradient in the wind tunnel test section on vehicle aerodynamic drag were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The numerical study was used to obtain the aerodynamic drag of several vehicles in two virtual wind tunnels, one with a zero pressure gradient and another with a nonzero (but small) pressure gradient. A comparison of the vehicle aerodynamic drags in these two virtual wind tunnels, and investigation of the physical mechanisms causing these differences, have led to two correction formulas. These formulas can be used to correct for the pressure gradient effect on vehicle aerodynamic drag measurement in a wind tunnel that has a nonzero pressure gradient. In the first formula, the correction is given explicitly in terms of known variables. The correction is 80% accurate for passenger car, sports car, sports utility vehicle (SUV), and is 70% accurate for pickup truck.
Technical Paper

Development of 4WS Control Algorithm for a SUV

Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV) and light duty trucks have gained in popularity for the last several years and the demand for more car-like behavior has increased, accordingly. Two areas for potential improvement are vehicle stability and maneuverability while parking. 4WS (4 wheel steering system) is known as an effective solution to stability and low speed maneuverability. In this paper, we identify a new systematic design method of two degree of freedom vehicle state feedback control algorithm that can improve vehicle stability, and show its control effects for a SUV with trailer towing. Low speed maneuvering is improved when the rear tires are steered in negative phase relative to the front tires. However with a large rear steer angle at low speed, the vehicle's rear overhang tracks a wider swing-out path than a 2WS vehicle. For this concern, we propose a new swing-out reduction control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Forward Collision Warning: Preliminary Requirements for Crash Alert Timing

Forward collision warning (FCW) systems are intended to provide drivers with crash alerts to help them avoid or mitigate rear-end crashes. To facilitate successful deployment of FCW systems, the Ford-GM Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) developed preliminary minimum functional requirements for FCW systems implemented on light vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, and vans). This paper summarizes one aspect of the CAMP results: minimum requirements and recommendations for when to present rear-end crash alerts to the driver. These requirements are valid over a set of kinematic conditions that are described, and assume successful tracking and identification of a legitimate crash threat. The results are based on extensive closed-course human factors testing that studied drivers' last-second braking preferences and capabilities. The paper reviews the human factors testing, modeling of results, and the computation of FCW crash alert timing requirements and recommendations.