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Technical Paper

Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
Technical Paper

Cabin Air Humidity Model and its Application

In addition to the thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is an objective of the automotive climate control system. An integrated dew point and glass temperature sensor is widely used among several other technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the cabin side (or inner) surface of the windshield. The erroneous information from a sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to the delayed response of the climate control system. Also the high value, low cost vehicles may not have this sensor due to its high cost. A differential equation based model of the cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time specific humidity of the passenger compartment air. The specific humidity is used along with the windshield surface temperature to determine relative humidity of air and therefore, the risk of fog formation on the interior surface of a windshield.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Journal Article

Fast and Efficient Detection of Shading of the Objects

The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

Design and CFD Analysis of an NHRA Funny Car Body

This paper describes the methodology used to design and perform a CFD analysis of a Chevrolet Impala SS Funny Car body. This body was designed for the purpose of making it available for teams to race it in the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) drag racing series beginning with the 2007 race season. Several challenges were presented in this project: (1) This was the first time a General Motors drag racing body for use in professional classes (Funny Car or otherwise) was ever designed in CAD. (2) The body was originally designed as a 2007 Chevrolet Monte Carlo. After the tooling was completed, changes in Chevrolet’s product lineup required that the body be changed to a 2007 Impala SS. (3) Budget constraints precluded CFD analysis until after the bodies were already being manufactured. There were several teams that raced the new body during the 2007 race season. One of these teams won the Funny Car Driver’s Championship.
Technical Paper

High Capacity Electric A/C Compressor with Integrated Inverter for Hybrid Automotive and Commercial Vehicles

The market growth for electric-hybrid passenger vehicles has been very significant and is expected to reach nearly 25% of all vehicles sold in the US by 2015. Hybrid commercial vehicles are also being developed by several OEM's. This paper discusses the progress of Delphi Thermal Systems in developing an integrated electric compressor drive with high cooling capacity (9 kW+), sufficient for large hybrid SUV's and commercial vehicles such as Class 8 tractors with sleeper. An important driver for use of the electric compressor in the hybrid truck application is the reduction of engine idling time while maintaining comfort in the cab or sleeper. Design details of a compact 5 kW SPM motor, its inverter drive, and issues related to its integration into the compressor housing are described. Test results are given confirming excellent performance.
Technical Paper

A Unified Approach to Forward and Lane-Change Collision Warning for Driver Assistance and Situational Awareness

A unified approach to collision warning due to in-lane and neighboring traffic is presented. It is based on the concept of velocity obstacles, and is designed to alert the driver of a potential front collision and against attempting a dangerous lane change maneuver. The velocity obstacle represents the set of the host velocities that would result in collision with the respective static or moving vehicle. Potential collisions are simply determined when the velocity vector of the host vehicle penetrates the velocity obstacle of a neighboring vehicle. The generality of the velocity obstacle and its simplicity make it an attractive alternative to competing warning algorithms, and a powerful tool for generating collision avoidance maneuvers. The velocity obstacle-based warning algorithm was successfully tested in simulations using real sensor data collected during the Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test (ACAS FOT) [10].
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.
Journal Article

Superelement, Component Mode Synthesis, and Automated Multilevel Substructuring for Rapid Vehicle Development

This paper presents the new techniques/methods being used for the rapid vehicle development and system level performance assessment. It consists of two parts: the first part presents the automated multilevel substructuring (AMLS) technique, which greatly reduces the computational demands of larger finite element models with millions of degrees of freedom(DOF) and extends the capabilities to higher frequencies and higher level of accuracy; the second part is on the superelement in conjunction with the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) and also Automated Component Mode Synthesis (ACMS) techniques. In superelement, a full vehicle model is divided into components such as Body-in-white, Front cradle/chassis, Rear cradle/chassis, Exhaust, Engine, Transmission, Driveline, Front suspension, Rear suspension, Brake, Seats, Instrument panel, Steering system, tires, etc. with each piece represented by reduced stiffness, mass, and damping matrices.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

High Performance Vehicle Chassis Structure for NVH Reduction

The main objective of this paper was to determine if the vehicle performance can be maintained with a reduced mass cradle structure. Aluminum and magnesium cradles were compared with the baseline steel cradle. First, the steel chassis alone is analyzed with the refined finite element model and validated with experimental test data for the frequencies, normal modes, stiffnesses and the drive-point mobilities at various attachment mount/bushing locations. The superelement method in conjunction with the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique was used for each component of the vehicle such as Body-In-White, Instrument Panel, Steering Column Housing & Wheel, Seats, Cradles, CRFM, etc. After assemblage of all the superelements, analysis was carried out by changing the front and rear cradle gauges and the material properties. The drive-point mobility response was computed at various locations and the noise (sound pressure) level was calculated at the driver and passenger ears.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Exterior Sound Fields by High Frequency Boundary Element Method

With Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proven to be a powerful tool for airborne noise analysis, the capability of predicting the exterior sound field around a vehicle at high frequencies (the load case in the SEA analysis) is of particular interest to OEMs and suppliers. This paper employs the High Frequency Boundary Element Method (HFBEM) to simulate the scattered exterior sound field distribution due to a monopole source. It is shown that the proposed method is able to efficiently predict the spatial and frequency averaged sound pressure levels reasonably well up to 10 kHz, even at points in the near field of the vehicle body.
Technical Paper

A Subsystem Crash Test Methodology for Retention of Convenience Organizer Equipment System in Rear Impact

Any equipment system or vehicle component like the Convenience Organizer storage system needs to be retained within the cargo compartment without intruding into the passenger compartment for occupant safety during a high speed impact. This paper outlines a test method to evaluate the retention of such a system in a rear impact environment. The method utilizes a low speed barrier to simulate a high speed RMB (Rear Moving Barrier) impact. The content of the low speed RMB impact test setup was developed utilizing DYNA3D analytical simulation results from a full vehicle model subjected to high-speed RMB impact. The retention of the equipment developed through this test method was confirmed on a full scale rear impact test.
Technical Paper

“Multi Vector” Field of View Design Tool

A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
Technical Paper

A Novel Design Concept of a Lateral Sliding Bucket Seat on Roller Mechanisms

A novel lateral sliding vehicle bucket seat was developed to address consumer needs for improved facile access to third row seats in minivans and sport utility vehicles. The concept provides for a second row bucket seat to slide laterally across a vehicle floor by roller mechanisms that roll across steel rails that transverse the vehicle floor. The system consists of two T-section type steel rails mounted parallel to each other at a distance equal to the seat riser support attachment features. The seat risers contain a roller mechanism that enables contact with the cylindrical portion of the steel rails. Each steel rail contains rectangular openings spaced appropriately to allow the seat latching mechanisms to engage securely. The seat riser supports at the rear include a releasable clamping mechanism hook that engages and disengages into the rectangular openings of the steel rails.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Countermeasures and Packaging Limits for the FMVSS201U

Different countermeasure designs for reducing the HIC (d) and to comply with FMVSS201U have been evaluated in many component-level studies by suppliers and OEMs. This study presents guidelines to support future countermeasure and interior designs. FMVSS201U has changed the way OEMs design interiors of the vehicles today. Most recently, much more work is being done to find ways to design interiors of the vehicles that comply with FMVSS201U while keeping the interiors aesthetically pleasing, attaining driver comfort and meeting driver visibility requirements. Introduction of side-rail airbags has further affected countermeasure design and packaging. This study focuses on several countermeasure designs in the side-rail region as used in a mid-sized vehicle implemented to meet FMVSS201U requirements and their efficiency with respect to Head Injury Criterion (HIC) reduction given a fixed packaging space.