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Technical Paper

Plating on Plastics - Exterior Trim Part Properties

2008-04-14
2008-01-1460
Chrome plated automotive exterior parts continue to be popular. A good understanding of the properties of the unplated and plated parts is required to have the lowest cost successful design. In this work, traditional mechanical properties are compared between plated and unplated ABS and ABS+PC grades of plastic. Additional findings are shared for the thermal growth properties that are important to the designer who is trying to minimize gaps to adjacent components and for the engineer who wants the plated parts to resist cracking or peeling. Finally, some bend testing results are reviewed to understand better the susceptibility of the chrome plated plastics to crack when bent. In total, these results will help the exterior trim part designers optimize for cost, fit and finish.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Effect of Thread Forming Process in Cast Aluminum

2006-04-03
2006-01-0780
Two thread forming processes, rolling and cutting, were studied for their effects on fatigue in cast aluminum 319-T7. Material was excised from cylinder blocks and tested in rotating-bending fatigue in the form of unnotched and notched specimens. The notched specimens were prepared by either rolling or cutting to replicate threads in production-intent parts. Cut threads exhibited conventional notch behavior for notch sensitive materials. In contrast, plastic deformation induced by rolling created residual compressive stresses in the notch root and significantly improved fatigue strength to the point that most of the rolled specimens broke outside the notch. Fractographic and metallographic investigation showed that cracks at the root of rolled notches were deflected upon initiation. This lengthened their incubation period, which effectively increased fatigue resistance.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Oxidation/Corrosion Performance of Various Materials for Exhaust System Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0605
Durability requirements for exhaust materials have resulted in the increased use of stainless steels throughout the exhaust system. The conversion of carbon steel exhaust flanges to stainless steel has occurred on many vehicles. Ferritic stainless steels are commonly used for exhaust flanges. Flange construction methods include stamped sheet steel, thick plate flanges and powder metal designs. Flange material selection criteria may include strength, oxidation resistance, weldability and cold temperature impact resistance. Flange geometry considerations include desired stiffness criteria, flange rotation, gasket/sealing technique and vehicle packaging. Both the material selection and flange geometry are considered in terms of meeting the desired durability and cost. The cyclic oxidation performance of the material is a key consideration when selecting flange materials.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Development of the 2006 Corvette Z06 Structural Cast Magnesium Crossmember

2005-04-11
2005-01-0340
Since its very beginning in 1953, Corvette has been a pioneer in light weight material applications. The new 6th generation corvette high performance Z06 model required aggressive weight savings to achieve its performance and fuel economy targets. In addition to aluminum body structure and some carbon fiber components, the decision to use a magnesium front crossmember was identified to help achieve the targets. An overview of the Structural Cast Magnesium Development (SCMD) project will be presented which will provide information on key project tasks. Project focus was to develop the science and technical expertise to manufacture and validate large structural magnesium castings, which provide a weight reduction potential of 35 percent with respect to aluminum. The die cast magnesium cradle is being produced from a Mg-Al-RE alloy, designated AE44, for high temperature creep and strength performance as well as casting ductility requirements.
Technical Paper

Progress Toward a Magnesium-Intensive Engine: The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2004-03-08
2004-01-0654
The US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) and the US Department of Energy launched the Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project in 2001 to determine the feasibility and desirability of producing a magnesium-intensive engine; a V6 engine with a magnesium block, bedplate, oil pan, and front cover. In 2003 the Project reached mid-point and accomplished a successful Decision Gate Review for entry into the second half (Phase II) of the Project. Three tasks, comprising Phase I were completed: (1) evaluation of the most promising low-cost, creep-resistant magnesium alloys, (2) design of the engine components using the properties of the optimized alloys and creation of cost model to assess the cost/benefit of the magnesium-intensive engine, and (3) identification and prioritization of scientific research areas deemed by the project team to be critical for the use of magnesium in powertrain applications.
Technical Paper

Residual Forming Effects on Full Vehicle Frontal Impact and Body-in-White Durability Analyses

2002-03-04
2002-01-0640
Forming of sheet metal structures induces pre-strains, thickness variations, and residual stresses. Pre-strains in the formed structures introduce work hardening effects and change material fatigue properties such as stress-life or strain-life. In the past, crashworthiness and durability analyses have been carried out using uniform sheet thickness and stress- and strain-free initial conditions. In this paper, crashworthiness and durability analyses of hydroformed front rails, stamped engine rails and shock towers on a full vehicle and a Body-In-White structure are performed considering the residual forming effects. The forming effects on the crash performance and fatigue life are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Plane Stress Fracture Toughness Testing of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

2002-03-04
2002-01-0077
Plane stress fracture behavior was measured for magnesium alloys AM60B, AM50A, and AZ91D produced by high-pressure die casting. Compact Tension (CT) specimens were obtained from plate samples with approximately 2-5 mm thickness. The compliance unloading technique was used to record crack extension for each specimen. The AM50A and AM60B specimens exhibited stable crack extension beyond ASTM E 1820 limits for Jmax (∼ 33 kJ m-2 and 22 kJ m-2, respectively) and Δamax (2.1 mm and 1.3 mm, respectively). The data were in good agreement with a power law fit for J vs. Δa. The AZ91D samples had unstable crack extension, with a flat R-curve and a critical fracture energy Jc of ∼ 7.5 kJ m-2. All fractures were by microvoid coalescence, initiated between the primary Mg grains and the brittle Mg17Al12 phase.
Technical Paper

Anisotropy Effects in the Forming of Aluminum Sheet

1995-02-01
950702
In an effort to reduce anisotropy, which affects sheet forming performance, special actions were taken in the production of 6009-T4 sheet. To further reduce anisotropy in forming behavior, the modified 6009-T4 sheet was given an electro-discharge texture (EDT) surface topography to make friction behavior nondirectional. The modified 6009-T4 was compared to standard 6009-T4 in terms of metallurgical characteristics, laboratory test results and field forming results. The modified sheet yielded reduced planar anisotropy and improved formability. EDT completely removed directionality in friction behavior and led to an improvement in performance in the forming trials.
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