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Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Volume Morphing to Compensate Stamping Springback

2009-04-20
2009-01-0982
A common occurrence in computer aided design is the need to make changes to an existing CAD model to compensate for shape changes which occur during a manufacturing process. For instance, finite element analysis of die forming or die tryout results may indicate that a stamped panel springs back after the press line operation so that the final shape is different from nominal shape. Springback may be corrected by redesigning the die face so that the stamped panel springs back to the nominal shape. When done manually, this redesign process is often time consuming and expensive. This article presents a computer program, FESHAPE, that reshapes the CAD or finite element mesh models automatically. The method is based on the technique of volume morphing pioneered by Sederberg and Parry [Sederberg 1986] and refined in [Sarraga 2004]. Volume morphing reshapes regions of surfaces or meshes by reshaping volumes containing those regions.
Technical Paper

Model Driven Testing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0743
While the industry has recognized the value of modeling and code generation, the role of verification has taken a limited second tier role. Model Based Testing (MBT) is typically discussed in the context of automation of testing activities to eliminate the burden of generation and execution of tests. Unfortunately, this objective of effort minimization has skewed solutions away from using quality as a guiding metric. Alternatively, we have identified the simple objective of increasing the quality of testing practices and productivity of developers. In the following paper we introduce the integration of traditional software quality practices of functional, unit, and regression testing with the automated, model-driven world. This approach enables a quantitative approach to model driven software quality. The result is a robust technique that enables confident use of model-based development for production applications.
Technical Paper

Modeling Costs and Fuel Economy Benefits of Lightweighting Vehicle Closure Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-0370
This paper illustrates a methodology in which complete material-manufacturing process cases for closure panels, reinforcements, and assembly are modeled and compared in order to identify the preferred option for a lightweight closure design. First, process-based cost models are used to predict the cost of lightweighting the closure set of a sample midsized sports utility vehicle (SUV) via material and process substitution. Weight savings are then analyzed using a powertrain simulation to understand the impact of lightweighting on fuel economy. The results are evaluated in the context of production volume and total mass change.
Technical Paper

Forming Simulation and Validation of Laminated Steel Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-1675
Laminated steel has been increasingly applied in automotive products for vibration and noise reduction. One of the major challenges the laminated steel poses is how to simulate forming processes and predict formability severity with acceptable correlation in production environment, which is caused by the fact that a thin polymer core possesses mechanical properties with significant difference in comparison with that of steel skins. In this study a cantilever beam test is conducted for investigating flexural behavior of the laminated steel and a finite element modeling technique is proposed for forming simulation of the laminated steel. Two production panels are analyzed for formability prediction and the results are compared with those from the try-out for validation. This procedure demonstrates that the prediction and try-out are in good agreement for both panels.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Managing Vehicle Mass throughout the Development Process and Vehicle Lifecycle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1721
Managing (minimizing and optimizing) the total mass of a vehicle is recognized as a critical task during the development of a new vehicle, as well as throughout its production lifecycle. This paper summarizes a literature review of, and investigation into, the strategies, methods and best practices for achieving low total mass in new vehicle programs, and/or mass reductions in existing production vehicle programs. Empirical and quantitative data and examples from the automotive manufacturers and suppliers are also provided in support of the material presented.
Technical Paper

Brake-by-Wire, Motivation and Engineering - GM Sequel

2006-10-08
2006-01-3194
Achieving optimum results and developing systems that are towards production intent is a challenge that the General Motors Sequel platform not only overcame, but also enhanced by providing an opportunity to achieve maximum integration of new technologies. Implementation of these new technologies during this project enabled us to understand the impact and rollout for future production programs to enhance performance and add features that will enable General Motors to make quantum leaps in the automotive industry. Presented are aspects, objectives and features of the Sequel's advanced Brake-By-Wire system as it migrates from concept towards production readiness. Also included in the paper are the objectives for system design; functional/performance requirements and the desired fault tolerance. The system design, component layout, control and electrical system architecture overviews are provided.
Technical Paper

Custom Real-Time Interface Blockset Development in Matlab/Simulink for On-Target Rapid Prototyping

2006-04-03
2006-01-0169
In GM R&D Powertrain/Engine Control Group, rapid prototyping controller (RPC) systems with Matlab/Simulink are used extensively to design, simulate and implement advanced engine control algorithms and models. However, those RPC systems use powerful microprocessors with large amounts of RAM contrary to engine control modules (ECM) in production vehicles. Therefore, a thorough analysis on the comparatively much more complicated algorithms and models cannot be performed during the research stage, since there are not enough tools to enable the smooth transition from Matlab/Simulink to the production type processor. The Real-Time Interface (RTI) Blockset for a production like microprocessor would close the transition gap between rapid prototyping controller systems and production type microprocessors by leveraging the power and popularity of Matlab/Simulink in control engineering world and automatic code generation tools.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy

2006-04-03
2006-01-1346
Cylinder pressure data is so completely integral to the combustion system development process that ensuring measurements of the highest possible accuracy is of paramount importance. Three main areas of the pressure measurement and analysis process control the accuracy of measured cylinder pressure and its derived metrics: 1) Association of the pressure data to the engine's crankshaft position or cylinder volume 2) Pegging, or referencing, the pressure sensor output to a known, absolute pressure level 3) The raw, relative pressure output of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor Certain cylinder pressure-based metrics, such as mean effective pressures (MEP) and heat release parameters, require knowledge of the cylinder volume associated with the sampled pressure data. Accurate determination of the cylinder volume is dependent on knowing the rotational position of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Problem Solving Using Independence Design Principle

2005-04-11
2005-01-1524
A case study on halfshaft design was presented to illustrate the application of axiomatic design principles in problem solving at General Motors. The halfshaft design was analyzed to identify design parameters to decouple insertion and retention forces. Design changes were made and implemented in production.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Prototyping Controller-based Full-Authority Diesel Engine Controller

2005-04-11
2005-01-1344
A rapid prototyping controller (RPC) based, full-authority, diesel control system is developed, implemented, tested and validated on FTP cycle. As rapid prototyping controller, dSPACE Autobox is coupled with a fast processor based slave for lower level I/O control and a collection of in-house designed interface cards for signal conditioning. The base software set implemented mimics the current production code for a production diesel engine. This is done to facilitate realistic and accurate comparison of production algorithms with new control algorithms to be added on future products. The engine is equipped with all the state-of-the art subsystems found in a modern diesel engine (common rail fuel injection, EGR, Turbocharger etc.).
Technical Paper

Enhancing the Design of the Chevy Avalanche through Human Factors

2003-03-03
2003-01-0120
This paper describes the Human Factors (HF) research undertaken to support the new midgate incorporated in the Chevrolet Avalanche. This concept had several unique user interfaces not previously used in vehicle design and required several Human Factors studies to assess the usability of this concept. In addition, this paper discusses developing a protocol for conducting iterative Human Factors studies to assess the usability impact of product changes within the strict production program time lines.
Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of an Aluminum Engine Cradle for a General Motors Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0659
Automotive manufacturers have intensified their efforts to increase vehicle fuel economy by reducing weight without sacrificing vehicle size and comfort. Vehicle areas that offer the potential to reduce weight include chassis structural components. A cradle or a subframe is a chassis structural component that is utilized to support the engine/powertrain in front wheel drive vehicles. Traditionally, engine cradles have been manufactured by using stamped steel weldments. Recently, automotive designers are considering alternative processes, i.e., hydro-forming, as well as fabricating engine cradles using lightweight materials. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of an aluminum engine cradle for a General Motors's midsize vehicle. The design criteria and structural performance requirements for this cradle are presented along with an overview of the manufacturing processes used to produce this lightweight structural part.
Technical Paper

Recovery of Selected Engineering Plastics from Automotive Shredder Residue Using Skin Flotation Technology

1999-03-01
1999-01-0663
Recovery of metals from automobile shredder residue (ASR) is currently being applied to over 11 million end of life vehicles (ELV) in North America. However, most plastics from these vehicles become landfill. The Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP), an effort of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, as part of the USCAR initiative, has been conducting research to recover plastics from this ASR feed stream. The VRP has been working with Recovery Plastics International (RPI), to investigate automated plastic separations. RPI has been developing processes that would allow for fully automated recovery of target engineering plastics. The portion of the process developed for separating the engineering plastics is called skin flotation. This technology can separate engineering plastics even if the materials have the exact same density. A pilot production line has been set up for processing a variety of commercial ASR materials at RPI in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA).
Technical Paper

Anisotropy Effects in the Forming of Aluminum Sheet

1995-02-01
950702
In an effort to reduce anisotropy, which affects sheet forming performance, special actions were taken in the production of 6009-T4 sheet. To further reduce anisotropy in forming behavior, the modified 6009-T4 sheet was given an electro-discharge texture (EDT) surface topography to make friction behavior nondirectional. The modified 6009-T4 was compared to standard 6009-T4 in terms of metallurgical characteristics, laboratory test results and field forming results. The modified sheet yielded reduced planar anisotropy and improved formability. EDT completely removed directionality in friction behavior and led to an improvement in performance in the forming trials.
Technical Paper

Issues and Trends in Automotive Aluminum Sheet Forming

1993-03-01
930277
Aluminum sheet forming is entering an era where rapid advances in technology are likely. Combining increased understanding of material behavior, increased understanding of metalworking tribology and improved control of sheet forming processes will result in improved distribution of strain, allowing more complex components to be formed and greater design flexibility. New process control techniques will be developed and implemented to result in improved press actions, control of strain path to effect increased formability and reduced sensitivity to process variables. Improved techniques for assessing producibility and for generating effective tool designs will be developed, perhaps eliminating the need for soft tool tryouts to substantially reduce the total die development time and cost. In this review paper, each of these issues will be discussed.
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