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Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0860
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under. To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Drum Brake Out of Roundness Reduction to Improve Brake Pulsation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0825
The drum brake pulsation is an issue that may cause a major customer complaint. One of the root causes of the drum pulsation is the deformation of the drum to an out of roundness (OOR) shape during the wheel-drum-axle assembly process under the presence of the uneven wheel flatness. This paper summarizes the newly developed OOR simulation method using ABAQUS and the counter-measures to reduce the OOR, and subsequently pulsation, by identifying the drum design parameter effects on OOR.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Journal Article

Superelement, Component Mode Synthesis, and Automated Multilevel Substructuring for Rapid Vehicle Development

2008-04-14
2008-01-0287
This paper presents the new techniques/methods being used for the rapid vehicle development and system level performance assessment. It consists of two parts: the first part presents the automated multilevel substructuring (AMLS) technique, which greatly reduces the computational demands of larger finite element models with millions of degrees of freedom(DOF) and extends the capabilities to higher frequencies and higher level of accuracy; the second part is on the superelement in conjunction with the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) and also Automated Component Mode Synthesis (ACMS) techniques. In superelement, a full vehicle model is divided into components such as Body-in-white, Front cradle/chassis, Rear cradle/chassis, Exhaust, Engine, Transmission, Driveline, Front suspension, Rear suspension, Brake, Seats, Instrument panel, Steering system, tires, etc. with each piece represented by reduced stiffness, mass, and damping matrices.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake Lining Life Using an Energy-Based CAE Approach

2007-04-16
2007-01-1019
Due to competitive pressures and the need to rapidly develop new products for the automotive marketplace, the automotive industry has to rapidly develop and validate automotive subsystems and components. While many CAE tools are employed to decrease the time needed for a number of brake engineering tasks such as stress analysis, brake system sizing, thermo-fluid analysis, and structural dynamics, brake lining wear and the associated concept of “lining life” are still predominantly developed and validated through resource intensive public road vehicle testing. The goal of this paper is to introduce and detail an energy-based, lumped-parameter CAE approach to predict brake lining life in passenger cars and light trucks.
Technical Paper

Designing Suspensions to Achieve Desirable Impact Harshness and Impact Shake Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0585
Impact Harshness and Impact Shake are two related aspects of ride performance. Vehicle designs often need to meet the conflicting requirements between these two performance areas. The fundamental dynamics and general effect of vehicle and suspension design parameters need to be understood to reduce the cost and time associated with early vehicle development and ensure built-in quality. This study investigates the influence of the parameters in suspension and tire wheel systems on each of the performance metrics. Attempts are made to rank-order the relative sensitivity of each parameter on each of the metrics and propose approaches to improve ride quality.
Technical Paper

Software Testing Strategies for Model-Based Chassis Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0505
Model-based design and development is emerging in the automotive industry, largely revealing its popularity in chassis control systems [1]. Although it is an efficient and accepted design tool for chassis systems, proper processes and strategies need to be in place to ensure the integrity and correctness of the production software. This paper describes software testing strategies for complex chassis control systems in a model-based environment. In detail, it highlights various testing methods for different phases, such as unit testing and integration testing. It will also address issues and challenges that were faced with each method and propose possible solutions.
Technical Paper

Brake-by-Wire, Motivation and Engineering - GM Sequel

2006-10-08
2006-01-3194
Achieving optimum results and developing systems that are towards production intent is a challenge that the General Motors Sequel platform not only overcame, but also enhanced by providing an opportunity to achieve maximum integration of new technologies. Implementation of these new technologies during this project enabled us to understand the impact and rollout for future production programs to enhance performance and add features that will enable General Motors to make quantum leaps in the automotive industry. Presented are aspects, objectives and features of the Sequel's advanced Brake-By-Wire system as it migrates from concept towards production readiness. Also included in the paper are the objectives for system design; functional/performance requirements and the desired fault tolerance. The system design, component layout, control and electrical system architecture overviews are provided.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Rotor Crossdrilling on Brake Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0691
A review of available information on the effect that brake rotor crossdrilling has on brake performance reveals a wide range of claims on the subject, ranging from ‘minimal effect, cosmetic only’ to substantially improving brake cooling and fade resistance. There are also several theories on why brake rotor crossdrilling could improve fade performance, including crossdrill holes providing a path for ‘de-gassing’ of the brake lining material and increasing the mechanical interaction, or ‘grip’ of the lining material on the rotor. This paper reviews three case studies in which the opportunity arose to compare the performance of brake systems with crossdrilled versus non crossdrilled brake rotors in otherwise identical brake corner designs. The effect of brake rotor crossdrilling on brake cooling, brake output, brake fade, wet brake output, and brake wear rates were studied using both on-vehicle and dynamometer data.
Technical Paper

Development of a Steer-by-Wire System for the GM Sequel

2006-04-03
2006-01-1173
Steer-by-wire systems (SBW) offer the potential to enhance steering functionality by enabling features such as automatic lane keeping, park assist, variable steer ratio, and advanced vehicle dynamics control. The lack of a steering intermediate shaft significantly enhances vehicle architectural flexibility. These potential benefits led GM to include steer-by-wire technology in its next generation fuel cell demonstration vehicle, called “Sequel.” The Sequel's steer-by-wire system consists of front and rear electromechanical actuators, a torque feedback emulator for the steering wheel, and a distributed electronic control system. Redundancy of sensors, actuators, controllers, and power allows the system to be fault-tolerant. Control is provided by multiple ECU's that are linked by a fault-tolerant communication system called FlexRay. In this paper, we describe the objectives for fault tolerance and performance that were established for the Sequel.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Dynamics of Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration on Smooth Roads

2006-04-03
2006-01-0564
Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration (SWTV) at highway speed on smooth roads is one important attribute affecting vehicle refinement. To ensure desirable SWTV performance, achieve the best design compromises and minimize the development cost, specific design targets need to be defined and the proposed design needs to be assessed very early in the vehicle development cycle. In this paper, the fundamental dynamics of SWTV are analyzed and examples are given to demonstrate the strategies to reduce the SWTV response. Influence of design parameters on the SWTV response is predicted for four vehicle platforms. General guidelines for designing suspension and steering systems are discussed to ensure achieving SWTV targets.
Technical Paper

Tuning Guide for Deflected-Disc Suspension Dampers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1380
This paper presents an empirical-based model which explains the force-deflection characteristics of disc stacks commonly used in automotive suspension dampers. The model provides tools for comparing different disc stacks to understand their effect on damper performance. Load-deflection data is presented on a variety of discs and combinations of discs. The data is analyzed to show how the diameter, thickness and relative position of discs in a stack can affect the stack stiffness throughout the range of disc deflections. A model is developed to show how changes in the disc stack will affect damper performance at different velocities. An example is provided that shows predicted changes in disc stack force-deflection characteristics and the resulting changes in a damper force-velocity curve. Ride results are also presented that confirm the validity of the model.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid System for the Saturn VUE Hybrid

2006-04-03
2006-01-1502
The hybrid system for the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line Hybrid SUV was designed to provide the fuel economy of a compact sedan, while delivering improved acceleration performance over the base vehicle, and maintaining full vehicle utility. Key elements of the hybrid powertrain are a 2.4L DOHC engine with dual cam-phasers, a modified 4-speed automatic transmission, an electric motor-generator connected to the crankshaft through a bi-directional belt-drive system, power electronics to control the motor-generator, and a NiMH battery pack. The VUE's hybrid functionality includes: engine stop-start, regenerative braking, intelligent charge control of the hybrid battery, electric power assist, and electrically motored creep. Methods of improving urban and highway fuel economy via optimal use of the hybrid motor and battery, engine and transmission hardware and controls modifications, and vehicle enhancements, are discussed.
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