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Technical Paper

Life-Cycle Costs of Lithium-Ion Vehicle Batteries

One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is lithium ion. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from being able to meet the cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) undertook a project for the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) to estimate costs of lithium ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, or development of new supplies.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle Costs to Consumers

A methodology for evaluating life cycle cost of electric vehicles (EVs) to their buyers is presented. The methodology is based on an analysis of conventional vehicle costs, costs of drivetrain and auxiliary components unique to EVs, and battery costs. The conventional vehicle's costs are allocated to such subsystems as body, chassis, and powertrain. In electric vehicles, an electric drive is substituted for the conventional powertrain. The current status of the electric drive components and battery costs is evaluated. Battery costs are estimated by evaluating the material requirements and production costs at different production levels; battery costs are also collected from other sources. Costs of auxiliary components, such as those for heating and cooling the passenger compartment, are also estimated. Here, the methodology is applied to two vehicle types: subcompact car and minivan.