Life-Cycle Costs of Lithium-Ion Vehicle Batteries
One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is lithium ion. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from being able to meet the cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) undertook a project for the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) to estimate costs of lithium ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, or development of new supplies.