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Technical Paper

Analysis of TWC Operation Characteristics in a Euro6 Gasoline Light Duty Vehicle

2019-09-09
2019-24-0162
A Euro6 gasoline light duty vehicle has been tested at the engine dynamometer and the emissions have been analyzed upstream and downstream the Three-Way-Catalyst (TWC) during the WLTP cycle. Catalyst simulations have been used for assessing the processes inside the catalytic converter using a reaction scheme based on 19 brutto reactions (Direct oxidation and reduction, selective catalytic re-ductions with CO, C3H6 and H2, steam reforming, water-gas shift and bulk Ceria as well as surface Ce-ria reactions). The reactions have been parametrized in order to best approximate the measurements. Based on the reactions taken into account, the real vehicle emissions can be predicted with good accu-racy. The simulations show that the cycle emissions are comprising mainly by the cold start contribution as well as discrete emission break-through events during transients.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop of Particulate Filters and Correlation with the Deposited Soot for Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0151
Particulate filters are a widely used emission control device on heavy-duty diesel engines. The accumulation of particulate matter, mostly consisting of soot, inside the filter results in increased filter pressure-drop (backpressure). This increased backpressure has been used by the on-board control systems as trigger for regeneration procedures, which aim to actively oxidize the accumulated soot. However, it is known that passive soot oxidation during normal operation affects the correlation between backpressure and the deposited soot mass in filter. Therefore, the backpressure alone cannot be a reliable trigger for regeneration. In this work we highlight operating conditions with very poor correlation between backpressure and accumulated soot mass in filter and evaluate the possible root causes. Experiments with several heavy-duty diesel engines and particulate filters were conducted on engine test bench.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Interactions Of Soot and SCR Reactions in Advanced DPF Technologies with Non-homogeneous Wall Structure

2012-04-16
2012-01-1298
The pressure for compact and efficient deNO systems has led to increased interest of incorporating SCR coatings in the DPF walls. This technology could be very attractive especially if high amounts of washcoat loadings could be impregnated in the DPF porous walls, which is only possible with high porosity filters. To counterbalance the filtration and backpressure drawbacks from such high porosity applications, the layered wall technology has already been proposed towards minimizing soot penetration in the wall and maximizing filtration efficiency. In order to deal with the understanding of the complex interactions in such advanced systems and assist their design optimization, this paper presents an advanced modeling framework and selected results from simulation studies trying to illustrate the governing phenomena affecting deNO performance and passive DPF regeneration in the above combined systems.
Technical Paper

Optimization Methodologies for DPF Substrate-catalyst Combinations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0291
As the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technology is nowadays established, research is currently focusing on meeting the emission and durability requirements by proper system design. This paper focuses on the optimum combination between the catalytic coating and substrate structural properties using experimental and simulation methodologies. The application of these methodologies will be illustrated for the case of SiC substrates coated with innovative sol-gel coatings. Coated samples are characterized versus their uncoated counterparts. Multi-dimensional DOC and DPF simulation models are used to study several effects parametrically and increase our understanding on the governing phenomena. The comparative analysis of DOC/DPF systems covers filtration – pressure drop characteristics, CO/HC/NO oxidation performance, effect of washcoat amount and catalyst dispersion on oxidation activity and finally passive regeneration performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Metal Foam Based Aftertreatment System on a Diesel Passenger Car

2008-04-14
2008-01-0619
An alternative metal foam substrate for exhaust aftertreatment applications has been recently presented and characterized. The present paper focuses on the potential of the metal foam technology as an efficient DOC and CDPF substrates on real-world conditions. The target platform is a mid-size passenger car and the methodology includes both modeling and experiments. The experimental testing starts from small-scale reactor characterization of the basic heat/mass transfer properties and chemical kinetics. The results show that the foam structure exhibits excellent mass-transport properties offering possibilities for precious metal and catalyst volume savings for oxidation catalyst applications. These results are also used to calibrate an advanced 2-dimensional model which is able to predict the transient filtration and reaction phenomena in axial and radial flow systems.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0445
Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.
Technical Paper

Model-based optimization methods of combined DPF+SCR Systems

2007-09-16
2007-24-0098
The design of integrated exhaust lines that combine particulate and NOx emission control is a multidimensional optimization problem. The present paper demonstrates the use of an exhaust system simulation platform which is composed of well-established multidimensional mathematical models for the transient thermal and chemical phenomena in DOC, DPF and SCR systems as well as connecting pipe heat transfer effects. The analysis is focused on the European Driving Cycle conditions. Illustrative examples on complete driving cycle simulations with and without forced regeneration events are presented for alternative design approaches. The results illustrate the importance of DOC and DPF heat capacity effects and connecting pipe heat losses on the SCR performance. The possibility of combining DPF and SCR functionality on a single wall-flow substrate is studied.
Technical Paper

Metal Foam Substrate for DOC and DPF Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0659
A new metal foam material for diesel particulate filtration, trademarked as INCOFOAM® HighTemp, was recently presented. Extensive tests showed the potential of achieving filtration efficiencies of the order of 85% or more at low pressure drop using a radial flow design concept with graded foam porosity. By applying a catalytic washcoat, the foam exhibits enhanced gas mixing and thus higher conversion efficiencies at high space velocities. In addition, due to an excellent soot-catalyst contact, the washcoated foam exhibited high catalytic regeneration rates. The present paper focuses on a novel “cross-flow” design concept for a better filtration/pressure drop trade-off as well as application of the foam as an oxidation catalyst substrate. The experimental testing starts from small-scale reactors and proceeds to real exhaust testing on the engine bench as well as vehicle tests on the chassis dynamometer and on-road testing.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Validation of a NOx Trap Model for Diesel Exhaust

2006-04-03
2006-01-0471
This paper presents a mathematical model for the simulation of NOx traps during the storage and the regeneration phases. The objective is to validate the model under realistic exhaust gas conditions during NOx storage and release phases. The model is based on a previous modeling platform developed by Aristotle University which simulates the behavior of 3-way catalysts. The previous model is extended to include the additional reactions taking place on a NOx trap, with particular emphasis on the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium effects. Moreover, the model includes the necessary reactions to simulate catalyst sulfation and de-sulfation processes. In parallel, a set of measurements are conducted under well controlled conditions with real diesel exhaust to study the storage and release phenomena under various operating conditions. The experimental data are used to calibrate the reaction kinetics and validate the model.
Technical Paper

Filtration and Regeneration Performance of a Catalyzed Metal Foam Particulate Filter

2006-04-03
2006-01-1524
The objective of this study is to present a particulate filter concept, based on a new porous material: INCOFOAM® HighTemp, a Ni-based superalloy foam. The paper examines the filtration and pressure drop characteristics as well as the regeneration performance of different filter configurations, based on experimental data and modeling. A number of different foam structures with variable pore characteristics are studied. The experimental testing covers flow and pressure drop behavior with air and exhaust gas, filtration efficiency measurements as function of particle size and regeneration rate measurements. The testing starts from mini-scale reactors and proceeds to real exhaust testing on the engine bench as well as vehicle tests on the chassis dynamometer and on-road. In parallel, a previously developed mathematical model is applied to study and understand the filtration and pressure drop mechanisms in the case of clean and soot loaded filters.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Assessment of Catalyst Ageing Cycles

1995-02-01
950934
In view of recent and future US and european regulations the design optimization of 3-way catalytic converters (3WCC) should also account for catalyst durability. The purpose of this paper is to extend the authors' approach for 3WCC modeling and evaluation in the direction of covering some aspects of ageing behavior. After a brief examination of the commonly accepted ageing mechanisms, a new methodology for the assessment of catalyst durability is formulated. This methodology takes into account the effect of thermal loading, high-temperature oxidation and poisoning of the catalyst. Based on the approach presented, along with the 3WCC and other related models and computer codes already in-use by the authors, a comparative assesment of engine bench ageing cycles may be computationally supported. Correlation of vehicle ageing cycles with engine bench cycles may also be accomplished as illustrated by a case study.
Technical Paper

Transient Modeling of 3-Way Catalytic Converters

1994-03-01
940934
The modeling of transient phenomena occurring inside an automotive 3-way catalytic converter poses a significant challenge to the emissions control engineer. Since the significant progress that has been observed with steady-state models cannot be directly exploited in this direction, it is necessary to develop a fully transient model and computer code incorporating dynamic behaviour of the three way catalytic converter in a relatively simple and effective way. The Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics (LAT), Aristotle University Thessaloniki, is cooperating with the Engine Direction of FIAT Research Center, in the development of a computer code fulfilling these objectives, within the framework of an EEC Brite EuRam cost shared project. The CRF and LAT modeling approaches, along with the underlying philosophy and experimental work, are presented in this paper.
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