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Technical Paper

Determination of Climatic Boundary Conditions for Vehicular Real Driving Emission Tests

Vehicular Emission testing is gaining importance over the past years in the wake of requirements for real driving emissions with implementation of RDE packages across Europe / USA and various developing countries. Extending the same concept for other countries poses slight challenges in terms of geographical and climatic conditions prevailing in the country, where the climatic conditions are differing from Europe / USA. It is a challenge to accept the same boundary conditions as in Europe, at the same time the challenge is to find a threshold number in a more scientific manner. This study concentrates on determination and recommendation of thresholds for ambient temperature and altitude. The basis for temperature threshold would be to determine the percentage of time the temperature exceeded beyond the threshold over year in the country. The basis for Altitude is considered based on the percentage of total length of roads beyond the threshold altitude limit.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise Refinement in an ICV Bus through Driveline Torsional Vibration Analysis

With a push for urbanization across cities, there is an increased demand for mobility in public transportation especially buses which are provided through state transport undertakings. Hence, the expectations of this class of vehicles will be high in terms of quality and comfort to the passengers. The noise inside the passenger area of the bus becomes an important parameter, which sets apart a bus manufacturer from its competitors. The driveline of the bus is the system responsible for the transfer of power from engine to the wheels. The noise and vibration problems associated with it are detected only in the late stages of the design chain, when all its elements are tested together over a wide range of conditions. Since, calibration of engine and the selection of transmission is freezed in early stages, satisfying power and torque requirements, the only viable option left to address the problem is by optimizing the clutch parameters.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Test Facility for Suspension Dampers of Commercial Vehicle

In the present scenario, delivering the right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector to grab the competitive advantage. In the development stage, validation process devours most of the product development time. This paper focuses on reducing the validation time for damper (shock absorber) variants which is a vital component in commercial vehicle suspension system. New test facility is designed for both performance test and endurance testing of six samples simultaneously. In addition, it provides force trend monitoring during the validation which increases the efficiency of test with an enhanced control system. This new facility is also designed to provide side loading capability for individual dampers in addition to the conventional axial loading. The key parameter during validation is control of damper seal temperature within the range of 70-90°C. A cooling circuit is designed to provide an efficient temperature control by re-circulating cold water.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Cradle Verification and Validation for Bus Application Export Market

To capture market share in different regions of the world, the product must fit different road profiles and operating conditions. Designing a product which suits two different markets requires many factors to be considered like the topography, driving pattern and road load profiles. This project deals with once such situations and required a stringent validation protocol which shall encompass all possible driving scenarios. The fully built vehicle is to be exported to a different market and required powertrain change and subsequently required a new cradle design. Customer usage and road profile study was carried out in the new market to estimate the percent operation in each zone i.e. good road and bad road. CAE analysis carried out to capture stress hotspots and possible failure locations. Vehicle is taken to road to measure frame acceleration at different speeds i.e. 40 kmph to 100 kmph.
Technical Paper

Study on Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Axle Response with Road Profile for ISO Road Class Categorization and Durability Analysis

Durability analysis is essential for vehicle validation and is carried out with the inputs of different road conditions. The selection of roads for durability analysis is critical and should represent the actual working conditions for the selected vehicle. Generally, the road conditions are subject to change with respect to time. To overcome the above, road profile data is an essential parameter which helps to represent and categorize roads in terms of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) road class. The ISO road classes objectively classify the roads with respect to roughness. This classification holds good by categorizing the signals to the respective road classes rather than different test roads. The road profiles are measured using inertial profiler methodology along with vehicle acceleration and displacement responses, also analyzed and categorized with respect to ISO road class.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Proving Ground Durability Test Sequence Based on Relative Damage Spectrum

In competitive vehicle market, the product must be designed and validated in shorter time span without compromising the quality. The durability of the vehicle is tested either by on road trials undertaken at the actual customer supplication sites for large time period or in the accelerated rough surfaces called “Proving ground” to validate in shorter time span. Accelerated proving ground durability testing plays a vital role in enabling shorter product development cycles by simulating the road load influences alone from the actual field conditions. It is imperative to simulate the test vehicle at proving ground (PG) testing such that it replicates the same damage that occurs in the field due to road loads. PG validation requires a specific durability test sequence for every segment of commercial vehicles due to different customer usage applications and terrain conditions. This diversity in applications and terrains induce structural damage at different range of frequencies.
Technical Paper

Steering Column Slip Endurance Test & Rig Development

In the emerging commercial vehicle sector, it is very essential to give a product to customer, which is very reliable and less prone to the failures to make the product successful in the market. In order to make it possible, the product is to be validated to replicate the exact field conditions, where it is going to be operated. Lab testing plays a vital role in reproducing the field conditions in order to reduce the lead time in overall product life cycle development process. This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the steering column slip endurance test rig. This rig is capable of generating wear on the steering column splines coating which predominantly leads to failure of steering column. The data acquired from Proving Ground (PG) was analyzed and block cycles were generated with help of data analyzing tools.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of an Engine Oil Sump for Improved Noise Characteristics

Powertrain is the major source of noise and vibration in commercial vehicles and has significant contribution on both interior and exterior noise levels. It is vital to reduce the radiated noise from powertrain to meet customer expectations of vehicle comfort and to abide by the legislative noise requirements. Sound intensity mapping technique can identify the critical components of noise radiation from the powertrain. Sound intensity mapping has revealed that oil sump as one of the major contributors for radiated noise from powertrain. Accounting the effect of dynamic coupling of oil on the sump is crucial in predicting its noise radiation performance. Through numerical methods, some amount of work done in predicting the dynamic characteristics of structures filled with fluid. This paper discusses on the capability of numerical approach in predicting the oil sump modal characteristics with fluid-structure interaction and consequent verification with experimental modal test results.
Technical Paper

Multi-Axis Simulation Test for Two-Wheeler Carrier Structure of a Commercial Vehicle Using Accelerated Road Load Data

In the present scenario, delivering right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector. Today, most of the OEMs have started to produce FBS (Fully Build Solution) such as oil tankers, mining tippers and two-wheeler carriers based on the market requirements. During product development phase, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol either in on-road or laboratory which consumes most of the product development time. This project is focused on developing validation methodology for two-wheeler carrier structure (deck) of a commercial vehicle. For this, road load data were acquired in the typical routes of customers at different loading conditions. Roads were classified as either good or bad based on the axle acceleration. To shorten the test duration, actual road load data was compressed using strain based damage editing techniques. The spectrum and transmissibility of acceleration signals at the decks were analyzed to select a deck for validation.
Technical Paper

Data Acquisition and Failure Simulation of Metal Bumper for Heavy Commercial Vehicle

This abstract work describes a method of data acquisition and validation procedure followed for a metal bumper used in commercial vehicle application. Covariance is considered as major phenomenon for repeatable measurements in proving ground data acquisition and it is to be maintained less than 0.05. In this project covariance of data acquisition is analyzed before physical simulation of acquired data. In addition to that, multiple testing conditions like uni-axial and bi-axial testing were carried out to attain the failure. PG data is used for bi-axial vibration test and conventional constant spectrum signal (CSD signal) is used for uni-axial vibration test. Target duration for uni-axial test (Z direction) was arrived using pseudo damage calculation. Strain gauges were installed in failure locations to compare PG data and rig data as well as to calculate strain life. Failures were simulated in bi-axial vibration test.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Torsional Vibration Measurement and Processing in Powertrains

Torsional vibration is a characteristic phenomenon of automotive powertrains. It can have an adverse impact on powertrain related noise as well as the durability of transmission and drivetrain components. Hence minimizing torsional vibration levels associated with powertrains has become important. In this context, accurate measurement and representation of angular acceleration is of paramount importance. A methodology was developed for in-house vehicle level torsional vibration measurement, analysis and representation of results. The evaluation of torsional vibration has two major aspects. First, the acquisition of raw rotational data and secondly, the processing of acquired data to arrive at usable information from which inferences and interpretations can be made about the behavior of the rotating element. This paper describes the development process followed for establishing a torsional vibration evaluation methodology.
Technical Paper

Reliable Measuring System for Fuel Consumption of Earth-Movers

Fuel economy is an important customer requirement which determines the position of earth-movers such as backhoe loaders in the market. Earth-movers are heavy duty machines that are used for construction works. Currently fuel consumption in earth-movers is quantified as fuel consumed per unit time (Liters per hour). Similarly, conventional measure of productivity of the earth-movers is in terms of volume of soil trenched per hour. Measurements using the above scales showed wide variations in measured fuel consumption and productivity, For the same equipment between measurements Two equipment of same make at different trench locations and Against the competitor equipment This inconsistency and lack of a proper measuring system made logical decision making extremely difficult. This paper describes the step by step procedures involved in deriving the methodology for robust fuel consumption measurement of earth-mover vehicles.
Technical Paper

Real Road Transient Driving Cycle Simulations in Engine TestBed for Fuel Economy Prediction

The present work describes an approach to predict the vehicle fuel economy by simulating its engine drive cycle on a transient engine dynamometer in an engine testbed. The driving cycles investigated in the current study were generated from the typical experimental data measured on different vehicles ranging from Intermediate Commercial Vehicle (ICV) to Heavy-duty Commercial Vehicle (HCV) in real-world traffic conditions include various cities, highways and village roads in India. Reliability and robustness of the method was studied on various engines with cubic capacity from 3.8 liters to 8 liters using different drive cycles, and the results were discussed. Later, using same measured drive cycles, vehicle fuel economy was predicted by a vehicle simulation tool (AVL CRUISE) and results were compared with experimental data. In addition, engine coolant temperature effect on fuel economy was investigated.
Technical Paper

Cost effective and Sustainable Alternate Material for Air Brake Tubings (ABT) in Commercial Vehicles

The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care has to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide (PA12) [1] is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and material cost is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of ABT with an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic Elastomer Ether Ester Block Copolymer (TEEE) [3] materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly employed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn't require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time.
Technical Paper

Durability Enhancement of Spring Seat in Bogie Suspension

Spring seat plays major role in bogie suspension; which is guiding and controlling the leaf spring for better suspension and also to withstand the compressive load from leafs. Currently used spring seats are failing frequently in medium and heavy duty vehicles, which lead to customer concerns by higher idle time and part replacement cost. Thickness of the spring seat can't be increased by large extent due to packaging constraints in the vehicle. Stress levels identified by FEA method are found higher than the current material capacity. With these constraints, the spring seat has been re-designed with improved strength and ductility of material by modern technology - Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI). The parts have been developed and assembled in various tipper applications and performance was studied. The developed spring seat shows five times superior durability compare to existing design.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Sequence and Target Generation for Variants among Commercial Vehicles

Based on customer application and loading condition, each Commercial Vehicle model has an entirely different usage pattern. To perform accurate durability validation, each vehicle model prototype should run on actual customer usage locations and loading conditions for the durability target kilometers. But it is time consuming and not practical. So a statistical approach is followed to generate the accelerated durability test sequence and target on in-house Proving Ground tracks to match the real customer usage for the durability target kilometers. Again a single durability test sequence and target cannot be followed for all vehicle models due to the variability in customer usage. For that, specific durability test sequence and target need to be established for every class of commercial vehicle. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability test sequence and target for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on variants of medium and heavy duty trucks.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of a Bus by Virtual Test Model (VTM)

In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements Done in Telematics System Towards Betterment of Services Offered to Fleet Customers

Ashok Leyland, India had commissioned a web portal towards serving their end customers with better fleet management. The services offered through this portal helps in improving the productivity and safety of vehicles, business operations and hence, the profitability of the customers. Track and trace, SMS/email alerts and report generation are the major functionalities of this portal. They assist the customers in analyzing the operations of their vehicles and take corrective actions towards optimizing them. However, there were certain problems faced by the customers, while accessing these functionalities through the web portal. This includes, significantly high lead time taken for report generation, unavailability of location details in the reports and track page due to early expiry of reverse geo-coding service limits.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Bus Ventilation Methods Using CFD

Non air-conditioned buses constitute a major portion of public transportation facilities in many countries across the world. Inadequate cabin air circulation is a major cause of passenger discomfort in these buses. The aim of this study is to model the air flow pattern inside the passenger compartment of a bus and to establish the effect of solutions such as roof vents in improving the air circulation. RANS based CFD simulations with Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model have been carried out using a commercial CFD solver. The CFD methodology has been verified by comparing results with experimentally validated LES simulation results available in literature. The vehicle model used in this study was the shell structure of a bus with an overall length of 7 m and a wheel base of 3.9 m. Simulations were carried out for a four vent configuration which showed an increase of 131% in the average in-cabin air velocity over the baseline model without any roof-vents.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Truck Driver Safety in Various Crash Scenarios

Driver safety is one of the key considerations in truck design and development. Virtual simulation offers opportunities to reduce development time and the number of physical prototypes consumed for design verification and validation for safety parameters. Thus, the application of virtual simulations of crash has become an integral part of the vehicle development process. The continuously emerging scenarios involving challenging test requirements can only be tested by means of virtual simulation techniques. This paper presents simulations that are performed to verify various safety aspects to ensure crashworthiness of the truck cabin. The cabin structure was evaluated for various national/international safety regulations. The FE model and simulation methodology was validated through physical testing and correlated for frontal impact test and roof strength test as per AIS 029/ECE R29. Analysis performed to ensure compliance to upcoming regulation ECE R29 Revision 03 is also discussed.