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Technical Paper

Optimization of Trim Component and Reduction of the Road Noise Transmission Based on Finite Element Methods

2018-06-13
2018-01-1547
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in NVH behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise transmission through trim packages has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. The incrementally restrictive weight and space constraints force today CAE engineers to seek for optimized trim package solution. This paper presents a two-steps process which aims to reduce the structure borne road noise due to floor panel using a coupled simulation with MSC NASTRAN and Actran. The embossment of the supporting steel structure, the material properties of porous layers and the thickness of visco-elastic patches are the design variables of the optimization process.
Journal Article

The Aerodynamic Development of the New Audi Q5

2017-03-28
2017-01-1522
The aerodynamic development of the new Audi Q5 (released in 2017) is described. In the course of the optimization process a number of different tools has been applied depending on the chronological progress in the project. During the early design phase, wind tunnel experiments at 1:4 scale were performed accompanied by transient DES and stationary adjoint simulations. At this stage the model contained a detailed underbody but no detailed engine bay for underhood flow. Later, a full scale Q5 model was built up for the aerodynamic optimization in the 1:1 wind tunnel at Audi AG. The model featured a detailed underbody and engine bay including original parts for radiators, engine, axles and brakes from similar vehicles. Also the 1:1 experiments were accompanied by transient DES and stationary adjoint simulations in order to predict optimization potential and to better understand the governing flow.
Journal Article

New Motion Cueing Algorithm for Improved Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamics on a Driving Simulator

2017-03-28
2017-01-1566
In recent years, driving simulators have become a valuable tool in the automotive design and testing process. Yet, in the field of vehicle dynamics, most decisions are still based on test drives in real cars. One reason for this situation can be found in the fact that many driving simulators do not allow the driver to evaluate the handling qualities of a simulated vehicle. In a driving simulator, the motion cueing algorithm tries to represent the vehicle motion within the constrained motion envelope of the motion platform. By nature, this process leads to so called false cues where the motion of the platform is not in phase or moving in a different direction with respect to the vehicle motion. In a driving simulator with classical filter-based motion cueing, false cues make it considerably more difficult for the driver to rate vehicle dynamics.
Technical Paper

Application of the Adjoint Method for Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-1615
The aerodynamic optimization of an AUDI Q5 vehicle is presented using the continuous adjoint approach within the OpenFOAM framework. All calculations are performed on an unstructured automatically generated mesh. The primal flow, which serves as input for the adjoint method, is calculated using the standard CFD process at AUDI. It is based on DES calculations using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The transient results of the primal solution are time averaged and fed to a stationary adjoint solver using a frozen turbulence assumption. From the adjoint model, drag sensitivity maps are computed and measures for drag reduction are derived. The predicted measures are compared to CFD simulations and to wind tunnel experiments at 1:4 model scale. In this context, general challenges, such as convergence and accuracy of the adjoint method are discussed and best practice guidelines are demonstrated.
Journal Article

Optimization of Lateral Vehicle Dynamics by Targeted Dimensioning of the Rim Width

2015-12-01
2015-01-9114
The aim of this investigation is the improvement of the lateral vehicle dynamics by optimizing the rim width. For that purpose, the rim width is considered as a development tool and configured with regard to specified targets. Using a specifically developed method of simulation, the influence of the rim width is analysed within different levels - starting at the component level “tyre” and going up to the level of the whole vehicle. With the help of substantial simulations using a nonlinear two-track model, the dimensioning of the rim width is brought to an optimum. Based on both, tyre and vehicle measurements, the theoretical studies can be proved in practice. As a result, the rim width has a strong influence on the behaviour of the tyre as well as on the overall vehicle performance, which emphasises its importance as a potential development tool within the development of a chassis.
Technical Paper

Precise Dummy Head Trajectories in Crash Tests based on Fusion of Optical and Electrical Data: Influence of Sensor Errors and Initial Values

2015-04-14
2015-01-1442
Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer at the Underbody of a Production Car

2014-04-01
2014-01-0582
The optimization of the flow field around new vehicle concepts is driven by aerodynamic and thermal demands. Even though aerodynamics and thermodynamics interact, the corresponding design processes are still decoupled. Objective of this study is to include a thermal model into the aerodynamic design process. Thus, thermal concepts can be evaluated at a considerably earlier design stage of new vehicles, resulting in earlier market entry. In a first step, an incompressible CFD code is extended with a passive scalar transport equation for temperature. The next step also accounts for buoyancy effects. The simulated development of the thermal boundary layer is validated on a hot flat plate without pressure gradient. Subsequently, the solvers are validated for a heated block with ground clearance: The flow pattern in the wake and integral heat transfer coefficients are compared to wind tunnel simulations. The main section of this report covers the validation on a full-scale production car.
Technical Paper

Model-Predictive Energy Management for the Integration of Plug-In-Hybrid Electric Vehicles into Building Energy Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1443
In current research projects such as "Vehicle to Grid" (V2G), "Vehicle to Building" (V2B) or "Vehicle to Home" (V2H), plug-in vehicles are integrated into stationary energy systems. V2B or V2H therefore stands for intelligent networking between vehicles and buildings. However, in these projects the objective is mostly from a pure electric point of view, to smooth the load profile on a household level by optimized charging and discharging of electric vehicles. In the present paper a small energy system of this kind, consisting of a building and a vehicle, is investigated from a holistic point of view. Thermal as well as electrical system components are taken into account and there is a focus on reduction of overall energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. A predictive energy management is presented that coordinates the integration of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle into the energy systems of a building. System operation is optimized in terms of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Concepts Based on Customer-Relevant Characteristics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0815
Electric vehicles differ from conventionally powered vehicles in terms of many characteristics that are directly relevant to the customer. The most evident ones are the total driving range, which is limited by the battery capacity, and the different acceleration behavior, which is directly influenced by the electric motor's torque characteristics. Furthermore, there are many other vehicle characteristics, such as lateral dynamics, that are also strongly influenced by electrification. For all customer-relevant vehicle characteristics, it is important to know the necessary and optimal fulfillments in order to plan and evaluate new electrified vehicle concepts. Correlation functions can be used to convert values for technical characteristics to normalized customer satisfaction fulfillments. To evaluate the quality of a vehicle concept during the development process, a parametric cost function is defined.
Video

The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-11-17
The presentation describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The presentation illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Journal Article

The New Audi A6/A7 Family - Aerodynamic Development of Different Body Types on One Platform

2011-04-12
2011-01-0175
The paper describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The paper illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Technical Paper

Dual Line Exhaust Design Optimisation to Maximize SCR Catalyst Efficiency thru Improved Ammonia Distribution

2009-04-20
2009-01-0914
The SCR after treatment system is already in production for passenger car engines with a single exhaust system. In this case, the exhaust system has to be designed very carefully to optimize the Ammonia distribution on the catalyst and therefore the DeNOx potential. The application to V8 engines with two turbochargers delivering the gas into two separated DOC & DPF units is an additional challenge. This paper describes the different optimization steps of such an exhaust system and the tools used during this work. After a design phase to integrate the SCR system in the exhaust geometry, a first CFD study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the basic system using one or two urea injectors. An optimization of the connection of the two tubes, directly in front of the SCR catalyst, has been designed using further CFD calculations as well as a marker gas SF6 on a cold flow bench.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Diffuse Interior Lighting Situation and Examining Its Results in a Virtual Reality Environment

2002-03-04
2002-01-0977
To produce an appealing ambient interior lighting design, the illumination inside a car is generated by diffuse reflections at the surfaces of the interior. So the complete illumination set can be determined by using all light sources and the attributes of the surface materials of the interior geometry. Normally, the early concept phase of the car is ideally to integrate the interior lighting in the styling of the car. But in this phase it is nearly impossible to measure and optimize the interior light due to continuous changes in car interior styling. An approach of simulating the diffuse illumination situation of car interior by using a radiosity method is presented. Then the results of the radiosity calculation are prepared in order to use them in a virtual reality environment. First the physical basics and their numerical implementation are shown. Then the material attributes, which are essential for calculation and their measurement based on real materials, are presented.
Technical Paper

Process Modeling in the Life Cycle Design - Environmental Modeling of Joining Technologies within the Automotive Industry -

1998-11-30
982190
For integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the design process it is more and more necessary to generate models of single life cycle steps respectively manufacturing processes. For that reason it is indispensable to develop parametric processes. With such disposed processes the aim could only be to provide a tool where parametric environmental process models are available for a designer. With such a tool and the included models a designer will have the possibility to make an estimation of the probable energy consumption and needed additive materials for the applied manufacturing technology. Likewise if he has from the technical point of view the opportunity, he can shift the applied joining technology in the design phase by changing for instance the design.
Technical Paper

The Best Function for the Seat of a Passenger Car

1985-02-01
850484
In order to optimize the function of an automobile seat, its geometrical and physical properties must be designed so that the loads resulting from the body weight and ambient factors (such as vibration, forces arising from vehicle dynamics, climatic conditions) act on the body of the occupant in such a way that the stress to which it is subjected is kept to a minimum. The physically measurable loads subject the driver to stress, i.e. they act mainly by changing biological processes in the organism, and drivers of widely different body statures must be considered. So the “correct” seat will necessarily be a compromise. From a careful integration of all requirements using the latest techniques, it emerged that an all-foam seat cushion incorporating varying degrees of firmness could be used to advantage. In this way Audi succeeded relatively quickly in designing a seat arrangement with remarkably positive characteristics.
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