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Technical Paper

In-Gear Slip Control Strategy of Dry-Clutch Systems Using a Sliding Mode Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1305
This paper proposes a clutch control strategy during in-gear driving situations for Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs). The clutch is intentionally controlled to make small amount of a slip to identify the torque transfer capacity. The control objective of this phase is to ensure the clutch slip fairly remaining the specified value. To achieve this, the micro-slip controller is designed based on sliding mode control theory. Experimental verifications performed on onboard control system of the DCT equipped vehicle demonstrate that the proposed controller good tracking performance of the desired slip speed.
Journal Article

A Method for Identifying Most Significant Vehicle Parameters for Controller Performance of Autonomous Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0446
In this paper a method for the identification of most significant vehicle parameters influencing the behavior of a lateral control system of autonomous car is presented. Requirements for the design stage of the controller need to consider many uncertainties in the plant. While most vehicle properties can be compensated by an appropriate tuning of the control parameters, other vehicle properties can change significantly during usage. The control system is evaluated based on performance measures. Analyzed parameters comprise functional tire characteristics, mass of the vehicle and position of its center of gravity. Since the parameters are correlated, but Sobol’ sensitivity analysis assumes decorrelated inputs, random variation yields no reasonable results. Furthermore, the variation of each parameter or set of parameters is not applicable since the numbers of required simulations is increased significantly according to input dimension.
Technical Paper

Development of the Wireless Power Transfer Technology for a Sliding Door

2019-04-02
2019-01-0485
The sliding door’s movement is 3-dimensional unlike the conventional door. So the electric power and signal are exchanged via the long ‘Power Cable’. It has a quite complex structure in order to be suitable to connect the vehicle’s body and the sliding door even during it’s moving. As the result, it is more expensive than conventional door’s one and the quality could not be guaranteed easily. In this paper, I have developed new technology which could transfer electric power by ‘wireless transfer’ in order to resolve the problem from using ‘Power cable’. I would propose the proper structure to transfer the electric power at any position of the sliding door without any physical connection. To transfer the electric power which drives the window regulator and the actuators in door, I have applied the ‘inductive coupling’ system.
Journal Article

Bridging the Gap between Open Loop Tests and Statistical Validation for Highly Automated Driving

2017-03-28
2017-01-1403
Highly automated driving (HAD) is under rapid development and will be available for customers within the next years. However the evidence that HAD is at least as safe as human driving has still not been produced. The challenge is to drive hundreds of millions of test kilometers without incidents to show that statistically HAD is significantly safer. One approach is to let a HAD function run in parallel with human drivers in customer cars to utilize a fraction of the billions of kilometers driven every year. To guarantee safety, the function under test (FUT) has access to sensors but its output is not executed, which results in an open loop problem. To overcome this shortcoming, the proposed method consists of four steps to close the loop for the FUT. First, sensor data from real driving scenarios is fused in a world model and enhanced by incorporating future time steps into original measurements.
Journal Article

On the Use of Driver-in-the-Loop (DIL) Systems in Commercial Vehicle Chassis Development

2017-01-10
2017-26-0242
A vehicle simulation model is developed, validated and integrated into a closed-loop virtual driving environment using a state-of-the-art hexapod driving simulator. Thirty variant states are implemented and evaluated subjectively on steering and handling performance quality and quantity. Standard open-loop objective testing manoeuvres are simulated and performance metrics are calculated, allowing for a systematic cross-correlation process. Graphical analysis of the correlation metrics proves that chassis changes may accurately be felt through the simulator interface. It is proposed how obtained correlation models may serve for driver-feel optimizing target setting in early vehicle development stages, frontloading a great deal of costly prototype testing. System requirements are established and benefits and limitations are portrayed.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0624
A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

A Virtual Residual Gas Sensor to Enable Modeling of the Air Charge

2016-04-05
2016-01-0626
Air charge calibration of turbocharged SI gasoline engines with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle has to be very accurate and needs a high number of measurements. In particular, the modeling of the transition area from unthrottled, inlet valve controlled resp. throttled mode to turbocharged mode, suffers from small number of measurements (e.g. when applying Design of Experiments (DoE)). This is due to the strong impact of residual gas respectively scavenging dominating locally in this area. In this article, a virtual residual gas sensor in order to enable black-box-modeling of the air charge is presented. The sensor is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. Amongst others, the physically calculated air mass is used as training data for the artificial neural network.
Journal Article

A Study on North American Customer Preference to Interior Noise using Sound Balance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0023
A new approach to achieve better customer perception of overall vehicle quietness is the sound balance improvement of vehicle interior sound during driving. Interior sound is classified into 3 primary sound source shares such as engine sound relative to revolution speed, tire road noise and wind noise relative to vehicle speed. Each interior sound shares are classified using the synchronous time-domain averaging method. The sound related to revolution order of engine and auxiliaries is considered as engine sound share, tire road noise and wind noise shares are extracted by multiple coherent output power analysis. Sound balance analysis focuses on improving the relative difference in interior sound share level between the 3 primary sound sources. Virtual sound simulator which is able to represent various driving conditions and able to adjust imaginary sound share is built for several vehicles in same compact segment.
Technical Paper

Li-Ion Battery SOC Estimation Using Non-Linear Estimation Strategies Based on Equivalent Circuit Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-1849
Due to their high energy density, power density, and durability, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are rapidly becoming the most popular energy storage method for electric vehicles. Difficulty arises in accurately estimating the amount of left capacity in the battery during operation time, commonly known as battery state of charge (SOC). This paper presents a comparative study between six different Equivalent Circuit Li-ion battery models and two different state of charge (SOC) estimation strategies. The Battery models cover the state-of-the-art of Equivalent Circuit models discussed in literature. The Li-ion battery SOC is estimated using non-linear estimation strategies i.e. Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF). The models and the state of charge estimation strategies are compared against simulation data obtained from AVL CRUISE software.
Technical Paper

Learning Slip Control of an Engine Clutch in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Linear Vehicle Launch

2014-04-01
2014-01-1745
This work studied the control technique for the engine clutch engagement at launch for the TMED parallel HEV for the improved drivability and dynamic performance. Analysis are done on the speed synchronization of the clutch plates, the speed control using the starter motor (ISG), and the fluid pressure control for the clutch. Possible external factors such as changes in the friction coefficient of transmission fluid, temperature variation, auxiliary power and pressure losses are identified and their effects on the targeted dynamic performance are examined. The targeted system performance was achieved with a learning control technique using fluid pressure as the only control input. This involves the compensation for the effect of external factors on the fluid pressure profile and this effect is memorized for the subsequent slip-launch application.
Technical Paper

Improved Cyclic Performances of Li-Sulfur Batteries with Sulfone-Based Electrolyte

2014-04-01
2014-01-1844
The effects of electrolyte on the cyclability of Li/S battery were investigated in this work. The electrochemical properties of single component ether solvents and a binary mixture of ether solvents were studied. These ether-based electrolytes have polysulfide shuttle problems which result in severe low Coulombic efficiency. To overcome these issues, sulfone-based solvent which forms a stable passivation film at the anode surface were used. As a result, the proper composition of sulfone-based electrolyte were obtained. Its capacity and reversible capacity retention were improved to 715 mAh/g and 72.6% which were increased by 52.1% and 63.1%, respectively, compared to those of ether-based electrolyte.
Journal Article

Integrated Chassis Control for Improving On-Center Handling Behavior

2014-04-01
2014-01-0139
This paper proposes a new integrated chassis control (ICC) using a predictive model-based control (MPC) for optimal allocation of sub-chassis control systems where a predictive model has 6 Degree of Freedom (DoF) for rigid body dynamics. The 6 DoF predictive vehicle model consists of longitudinal, lateral, vertical, roll, pitch, and yaw motions while previous MPC research uses a 3 DoF maximally predictive model such as longitudinal, lateral and yaw motions. The sub-chassis control systems in this paper include four wheel individual braking torque control, four wheel individual driving torque control and four corner active suspension control. Intermediate control inputs for sub-chassis control systems are simplified as wheel slip ratio changes for driving and braking controls and vertical suspension force changes for an active suspension control.
Journal Article

Mode-Dynamic Task Allocation and Scheduling for an Engine Management Real-Time System Using a Multicore Microcontroller

2014-04-01
2014-01-0257
A variety of methodologies to use embedded multicore controllers efficiently has been discussed in the last years. Several assumptions are usually made in the automotive domain, such as static assignment of tasks to the cores. This paper shows an approach for efficient task allocation depending on different system modes. An engine management system (EMS) is used as application example, and the performance improvement compared to static allocation is assessed. The paper is structured as follows: First the control algorithms for the EMS will be classified according to operating modes. The classified algorithms will be allocated to the cores, depending on the operating mode. We identify mode transition points, allowing a reliable switch without neglecting timing requirements. As a next step, it will be shown that a load distribution by mode-dependent task allocation would be better balanced than a static task allocation.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

2014-04-01
2014-01-1990
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Bicycle Model for Wide Ranges of Vehicle Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0841
This paper proposes an effective nonlinear bicycle model including longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motions of a vehicle. This bicycle model uses a simplified piece-wise linear tire model and tire force tuning algorithm to produce closely matching vehicle trajectory compared to real vehicle for wide vehicle operation ranges. A simplified piece-wise tire model that well represents nonlinear tire forces was developed. The key parameters of this model can be chosen from measured tire forces. For the effects of dynamic load transfer due to sharp vehicle maneuvers, a tire force tuning algorithm that dynamically adjusts tire forces of the bicycle model based on measured vehicle lateral acceleration is proposed. Responses of the proposed bicycle model have been compared with commercial vehicle dynamics model (CarSim) through simulation in various vehicle maneuvers (ramp steer, sine-with-dwell).
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Reliability Testing Method for Electric Vehicle Motor and Battery System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0748
Currently, the interest in accelerated reliability testing (ART) of electric vehicles parts has been increasing. In particular, an electric motor and battery are vital components of battery powered electric vehicles. The electric motor has two major roles, to discharge or charge battery when it is driven or braking. For analyzing the exact behavior mechanism of electric motor and predicting lithium-ion battery cell degradation, new accelerated reliability testing technology is required. This paper describes the results of research and development in new approach to reliability testing for electric vehicles. The methodology to measure a precise motor output torque of the rotating rotor using telemetry system was provided. The electric energy quantities as well as the used quantities of the electric power were also analyzed. The results of research and development in new approach to reliability testing for electric vehicles were systematized and reflected in development.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of ABS and RSC Control Algorithms for a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models using SIL Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0135
A Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulation is presented here wherein control algorithms for the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) system were developed in Simulink. Vehicle dynamics models of a 6×4 cab-over tractor and two trailer combinations were developed in TruckSim and were used for control system design. Model validation was performed by doing various dynamic maneuvers like J-Turn, double lane change, decreasing radius curve, high dynamic steer input and constant radius test with increasing speed and comparing the vehicle responses obtained from TruckSim against field test data. A commercial ESC ECU contains two modules: Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Yaw Stability Control (YSC). In this research, only the RSC has been modeled. The ABS system was developed based on the results obtained from a HIL setup that was developed as a part of this research.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Flex Fuel system with Delphi Heated injector application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1369
After the second worldwide oil crisis, Brazil put in place by 1975 a strategic plan to stimulate the usage of ethanol (from sugar cane), to be mixed to the gasoline or to be sold as 100% ethanol fuel (known as E100). To enable an engine to operate with both gasoline and ethanol (and their mixtures), by 2003 the “Flex Fuel” technology was implemented. By 2012 calendar year, from a total of about 3.8 million vehicles sold in the Brazilian market, 91% offered the “Flex Fuel” technology, and great majority used a gasoline sub-tank to assist on cold starts (typically below 15°C, where more than 85% of ethanol is present in fuel tank). The gasoline sub-tank system suffers from issues such as gasoline deterioration, crash-worthiness and user inconvenience such as bad drivability during engine warm up phase. This paper presents fuel injector technologies capable of rapidly electrically heating the ethanol fuel for the Brazilian transportation market.
Technical Paper

Realistic Driving Experience of New Vehicle Concepts on the BMW Ride Simulator

2012-06-13
2012-01-1548
Nowadays, a continually growing system complexity due to the development of an increasing number of vehicle concepts in a steadily decreasing development time forces the engineering departments in the automotive industry to a deepened system understanding. The virtual design and validation of individual components from subsystems up to full vehicles becomes an even more significant role. As an answer to the challenge of reducing complete hardware prototypes, the virtual competence in NVH, among other methods, has been improved significantly in the last years. At first, the virtual design and validation of objectified phenomena in analogy to hardware tests via standardized test rigs, e.g. four poster test rig, have been conceived and validated with the so called MBS (Multi Body Systems).
Video

BMW Technology/Strategy Regarding EV

2011-11-04
The BMW Group has introduced electric cars to the market with the MINI E already in 2009. The next step will be the launch of the BMW ActiveE in 2011, followed by the revolutionary Mega City Vehicle in 2013. The presentation will explain the BMW Group strategy for implementing sustainable mobility. A focus will be emobility, the use of carbon fiber and the holistic sustainability approach of BMW Group?s project i. Reference will be made to the research results of the MINI E projects in the US and in Europe. Presenter Andreas Klugescheid, BMW AG
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