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Technical Paper

From Theory to Three-Dimensional Finite Element Models: An Innovative Method for Validation

As a key part of numerical analysis, the modeling process has a tremendous influence on the quality of the results. While there is general awareness concerning uncertainties that arise during modeling, their quantity and sensitivity rarely are known. Hence, modeling quickly can become inaccurate and inefficient. The scope of the present paper is to innovate predictive modeling processes concerning the dynamics of real complex structures by means of linear modal analysis with the finite element method (FEM). The aim is to offer a transparent design catalog relating specific uncertainties to each model component in order to achieve error prevention for engineers dealing with comparable systems. A complex system is simplified and investigated for different levels of detail. Only after the model uncertainties for one level of detail are obtained, the next level of complexity is approached.
Technical Paper

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 2 - Exhaust Acoustic Silencer Configurations

At the rear of the vehicle an end acoustic silencer is attached to the exhaust system. This is primarily to reduce noise emissions for the benefit of passengers and bystanders. Due to the location of the end acoustic silencer conventional thermal protection methods (heat shields) through experimental means can not only be difficult to incorporate but also can be an inefficient and costly experience. Hence simulation methods may improve the development process by introducing methods of optimization in early phase vehicle design. A previous publication (Part 1) described a methodology of improving the surface temperatures prediction of general exhaust configurations. It was found in this initial study that simulation results for silencer configurations exhibited significant discrepancies in comparison to experimental data.
Journal Article

The Development of Turbine Volute Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations: Part 3: Exhaust Radial Turbine Volute Systems

Modern exhaust systems contain not only a piping network to transport hot gas from the engine to the atmosphere, but also functional components such as the catalytic converter and turbocharger. The turbocharger is common place in the automotive industry due to their capability to increase the specific power output of reciprocating engines. As the exhaust system is a main heat source for the under body of the vehicle and the turbocharger is located within the engine bay, it is imperative that accurate surface temperatures are achieved. A study by K. Haehndel [1] implemented a 1D fluid stream as a replacement to solving 3D fluid dynamics of the internal exhaust flow. To incorporate the 3D effects of internal fluid flow, augmented Nusselt correlations were used to produce heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the developed correlations for the exhaust system did not adequately represent the heat transfer of the turbocharger.
Journal Article

An Innovative Approach to Race Track Simulations for Vehicle Thermal Management

Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
Journal Article

Simulation of Underbody Contribution of Wind Noise in a Passenger Automobile

Wind noise is a significant source of interior noise in automobiles at cruising conditions, potentially creating dissatisfaction with vehicle quality. While wind noise contributions at higher frequencies usually originate with transmission through greenhouse panels and sealing, the contribution coming from the underbody area often dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. Continued pressure to reduce fuel consumption in new designs is causing more emphasis on aerodynamic performance, to reduce drag by careful management of underbody airflow at cruise. Simulation of this airflow by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools allows early optimization of underbody shapes before expensive hardware prototypes are feasible. By combining unsteady CFD-predicted loads on the underbody panels with a structural acoustic model of the vehicle, underbody wind noise transmission could be considered in the early design phases.
Journal Article

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 1 - General Exhaust Configurations

The thermal prediction of a vehicle under-body environment is of high importance in the design, optimization and management of vehicle power systems. Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle's production process, it is important to understand and determine regions of high thermally induced stress within critical under-body components. Therefore allowing engineers to modify the design or alter component material characteristics before the manufacture of hardware. As the exhaust system is one of the primary heat sources in a vehicle's under-body environment, it is vital to predict the thermal fluctuation of surface temperatures along corresponding exhaust components in order to achieve the correct thermal representation of the overall under-body heat transfer. This paper explores a new method for achieving higher accuracy exhaust surface temperature predictions.
Technical Paper

Test Center for Aging Analysis and Characterization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications

A test center for aging analysis and characterization of Lithium-Ion batteries for automotive applications is optimized by means of a dedicated cell tester. The new power tester offers high current magnitude with fast rise time in order to generate arbitrary charge and discharge waveforms, which are identical to real power net signals in vehicles. Upcoming hybrid and electrical cars show fast current transients due to the implemented power electronics like inverter or DC/DC converter. The various test procedures consider single and coupled effects from current profile, state of charge and temperature. They are simultaneously applied on several cells in order to derive statistical significance. Comprehensive safely functions on both the hardware and the software level ensure proper operation of the complex system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part2

Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in a wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around the vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi steady approximation significantly. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Part 2 of this study proves that a delayed and enhanced response of the surface pressures at the rear side of the vehicle is responsible for the differences between unsteady and quasi steady loads. The pressure changes at the vehicle front, however, are shown to have similar amplitudes and almost no phase shift compared to quasi steady flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part 1

Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in the wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around its vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi-steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi-steady approximation by 80%. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi-steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Using hotwire anemometry, a delayed reaction of the wake flow of Δt/T = 0.15 is observed, which is thought to be the principal cause for the differences between unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic loads. A schematic mechanism explaining these differences due to the delayed reaction of the wake flow is proposed.
Journal Article

Issues Exporting a Multibody Dynamics System Model into a Finite Element Analysis Model

Nowadays there is an increasing need to streamline CAE processes. One such process consists of translating a Multibody Dynamics System (MBS) model into an equivalent Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. Typically, users start with the creation of a MBS model which is set at a desired operating point by means of running simulations in the MBS domain (e.g. dynamics, statics.) The MBS model is then further translated into an equivalent FEA model which is used to perform simulations in the FEA domain (e.g. passive safety/crash, noise vibration harshness/NVH.) Currently, the translation of the MBS model into a FEA model is done either manually or by means of using a user-written script. This paper shows that a user-written script that translates a MBS model into a FEA model can not provide a high fidelity translation. In general, it is found that eigenvalues computed by the FEA code would not match eigenvalues computed by the MBS code.
Journal Article

Implementation and Validation of the G-equation Model Coupled with Flamelet Libraries for Simulating Premixed Combustion in I.C. Engines

The G-equation model was implemented in the commercial code ANSYS CFX and validated against experimental data in order to successfully simulate turbulent premixed combustion in internal combustion engines. The model is based on the level-set approach. Two transport equations are solved respectively for the G-scalar mean value, representing the local distance function from the time-averaged mean flame front, and its variance, correlated to the turbulent flame brush thickness. The model closure for tracking the flame front is based on an algebraic expression for the turbulent burning velocity. The composition of the reacted mixture is evaluated by coupling the code with flamelet libraries generated with the ANSYS CFX-RIF package by means of a reaction progress variable computed as a function of the G-related quantities.
Technical Paper

Virtual Validation of Assembly Processes with Digital Human Models — Optimizing the Human-Computer Interaction

Today digital 3D human models are widely used to support the development of future products and in planning and designing production systems. However, these virtual models are generally not sufficiently intuitive and configuring accurate and real body postures is very time consuming. Furthermore, additionally using a human model to virtually examine manual assembly operations of a vehicle is currently synonymous with increased user inputs. In most cases, the user is required to have in-depth expertise in the deployed simulation system. In view of the problems described, in terms of human-computer interaction, it is essential to research and identify the requirements for simulation with digital human models. To this end, experienced staff members gathered the requirements which were then evaluated and weighted by the potential user community. Weaknesses of the simulation software will also be detected, permitting optimisation recommendations to be identified.
Technical Paper

BMW High Precision Fuel Injectionin Conjunction with Twin-Turbo Technology: a Combination for Maximum Dynamic and High Fuel Efficiency

The new inline six cylinder Twin-Turbo gasoline engine forms the pinnacle of BMW's wide range of straight-six power units, developing maximum output of 300hp and a peak torque of 300 lb-ft with a displacement of 3.0 litre. Using two turbochargers in combination with the new BMW High Precision Fuel Injection leads to a responsive build-up of torque and to an impressive development of power over a wide engine speed range. This paper gives a detailed overview of the turbocharger-and the injection system and describes the effect of both systems on power and torque, as well as on fuel consumption and emission. The big advantage of using two small turbochargers is their low moment of inertia, even the slightest movement of the accelerator pedal by the driver's foot serving to immediately build up superior pressure and power. This puts an end to the turbo “gap” previously typical of a turbocharged power unit.
Technical Paper

BMW's Magnesium-Aluminium Composite Crankcase, State-of-the-Art Light Metal Casting and Manufacturing

This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Forces of Exposed and Enclosed Rotating Wheels as an Example of the Synergy in the Development of Racing and Passenger Cars

The aim of this report is to present the results obtained from the wind tunnel tests performed in the BMW wind tunnel regarding the pressure distribution on a rotating wheel. The acquired data is used to examine its flow topology for the “open” and “enclosed” cases and determine the wheel drag, lift and side forces by integrating the pressure distribution on its surface. The investigation concerned such measurements on a half scale model wheel. Its pressure distribution was identified with and without the presence of a racecar body. The wheel was also mounted on a half scale passenger car body and pressure measurements were taken with and without a wheel spoiler. After the pressure distributions were known for all configurations, the aerodynamic forces generated were determined. The influence of boundary layer thickness on them was also investigated. A better understanding of the forces the model wheel is subjected to is gained.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Heads for High Power Gasoline Engines - Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Prediction

Increasing demands on engine efficiency and specific power have resulted in progressively higher loadings on internal components of combustion engines. Therefore the durability assessment of such components is increasingly in demand, triggered by both reliability and economic requirements. Within this context the TMF cylinder head simulation process established at BMW is presented in the following article. The numerical model is able to account for thermo-mechanical loading histories. These lead to a transient evolution of the material characteristics during the lifetime due to aging in aluminum alloys. Therefore a viscoplastic constitutive model is coupled with an aging model to handle the change in precipitation structure and the effect on the material properties, especially for non heat-treated secondary aluminum alloys. The local damage evolution is modeled based on the growth of micro cracks.
Technical Paper

Steering System Development in Premium Car Segment

A top-of-the-range car customer not only expects exceptional vehicle design and quality but also a driving experience, which is out of the ordinary. Very harmonious interaction between vehicle dynamics and the steering system is required to offer clients such a consistent driving experience through generations of vehicle models. In this paper the basic properties of a premium driving experience are explored. It is shown that outstanding handling limits are a prerequisite, although most customers never experience such driving situations. In fact, on-center behavior is most crucial in enabling clients to experience part of premium driving performance, and the steering system is the key factor in delivering appropriate feedback to the driver by means of steering torque. Development procedures are presented to achieve the goals described above.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy Mechanical Properties: From Fatigue to Crack Propagation

In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
Technical Paper

Developing Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence for the Investigation of the Mixture Formation Process in Hydrogen Engines

Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) has been successfully used for the investigation of the mixture formation process in hydrogen engines. Detailed information has been obtained about the process development (qualitative measurements) and on the fuel/air-ratio (quantitative measurements) in the combustion chamber. These results can be used for further optimization of the mixture formation and the combustion process concerning emissions and fuel consumption. The measurement technique used here is not limited to hydrogen and can also be applied to other fuel gases like natural gas. The main topic of this paper is the experimental verification of the PLIF data by simultaneous Raman scattering measurements. By Raman scattering the fuel/air-ratio can directly be determined from the direct concentration measurements of the different gas species.
Technical Paper

AJ (Mg-Al-Sr) Alloy System Used for New Engine Block

AJ alloy is used with a new Aluminum-Magnesium Composite Design, which is an innovative approach to lightweight crankcase technology. The component is manufactured using high pressure die cast process. A wide range of chemical compositions was used to develop a good understanding of the behavior of this alloy system (castability, thermophysical, mechanical, microstructure). The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high pressure die cast components. Tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and high cycle fatigue properties were established and analyzed using multivariate analysis and statistical approach. This methodology was used to select the optimal chemical composition to match the requirements. The sensitivity of the alloy to heat exposure was investigated for both mechanical properties and microstructure.