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Technical Paper

Application of Electrically Driven Coolant Pumps on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0074
A reduction in CO2 emissions and consequently fuel consumption is essential in the context of future greenhouse gas limits. With respect to the thermodynamic loss analysis of an internal combustion engine, a gap between the net indicated thermal efficiency and the brake thermal efficiency is recognizable. This share is caused by friction losses, which are the focus of this research project. The parasitic loss reduction potential by replacing the mechanical water pump with an electric coolant pump is discussed in the course of this work. This is not a novel approach in light duty vehicles, whereas in commercial vehicles a rigid drive of all auxiliaries is standard. Taking into account an implementation of a 48-V power system in the short or medium term, an electrification of auxiliary components becomes feasible. The application of electric coolant pumps on an Euro VI certified 6-cylinder in-line heavy-duty diesel engine regarding fuel economy was thus performed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ethanol and 2-Butanol Blended Fuels on Combustion and Emissions in a Small Displacement Two Stroke Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0044
Small displacement two-stroke engines are cheap and low-maintenance propulsion systems and commonly used in scooters, recreation vehicles and handheld power-tools. The restriction by emission legislation and the increasing environmental awareness of end users as well as decreasing energy resources cause a rethinking in the development of propulsion systems and fuels in these fields. Despite recent improvements of electric powertrains, two stroke engines are the challenged propulsion system in high performance handheld power tools at the moment. The reasons are the extraordinary high power to weight ratio of two-stroke engines, the high energy density of liquid fuels and the reliability of the product with respect to extreme ambient conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements on emissions and fuel consumption of small displacement two-stroke engines can be realized.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss Analysis of a High Power Motorcycle Engine with Focus on Alcohol Blended Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0070
The development of future internal combustion engines and fuels is influenced by decreasing energy resources, restriction of emission legislation and increasing environmental awareness of humanity itself. Alternative renewable fuels have, in dependency on their physical and chemical properties, on the production process and on the raw material, the potential to contribute a better well-to-wheel-CO2-emission-balance in automotive and nonautomotive applications. The focus of this research is the usage of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol, in motorcycle high power engines. The different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of motorcycle applications in comparison to automobile applications raise the need for specific research in this area.
Journal Article

Advanced Heat Transfer and Underhood Airflow Investigation with Focus on Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) of Snowmobiles

2017-06-28
2017-01-9180
The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0621
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Injection and Combustion Phenomena in a Diesel Ignited Gas Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0559
Using natural gas as a fuel in internal combustion engines is a promising way to obtain efficient power generation with relatively low environmental impact. Dual fuel operation is especially interesting because it can combine the safety and reliability of the basic diesel concept with fuel flexibility. To deal with the greater number of degrees of freedom caused by the interaction of two fuels and combining different combustion regimes, it is imperative to use simulation methods in the development process to gain a better understanding of the combustion behavior. This paper presents current research into ignition and combustion of a premixed natural gas/air charge with a diesel pilot spray in a large bore diesel ignited gas engine with a focus on 3D-CFD simulation. Special attention was paid to injection and combustion. The highly transient behavior of the diesel injector especially at small injection quantities poses challenges to the numerical simulation of the spray.
Journal Article

Investigations and Analysis of Working Processes of Two-Stroke Engines with the Focus on Wall Heat Flux

2016-11-08
2016-32-0028
Small displacement two-stroke engines are widely used as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion systems for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years, considerable progress regarding emission reduction has been reached. Nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore, the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. With the application of suitable analyses methods it is possible to find improving potential of the working processes of these engines. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
Journal Article

Evaporation and Cold Start Behavior of Bio-Fuels in Non-Automotive Applications

2016-11-08
2016-32-0034
Worldwide increasing energy consumption, decreasing energy resources and continuous restriction of emission legislation cause a rethinking in the development of internal combustion engines and fuels. Alternative renewable fuels, so called bio-fuels, have the potential to contribute to environmentally friendly propulsion systems. This study concentrates on the usage of alcohol fuels like ethanol, methanol and butanol in non-automotive high power engines, handheld power tools and garden equipment with the focus on mixture formation and cold start capability. Although bio-fuels have been investigated intensely for the use in automotive applications yet, the different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of nonautomotive applications raise the need for specific research. A zero dimensional vaporization model has been set up to calculate the connections between physical properties and mixture formation.
Journal Article

Advanced Knock Detection for Diesel/Natural Gas Engine Operation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0785
As emission limits become increasingly stringent and the price of gaseous fuels decreases, more emphasis is being placed on promoting gas engines. In the field of large engines for power generation, dual fuel combustion concepts that run on diesel/natural gas are particularly attractive. Knock in diesel/natural gas dual fuel engines is a well known yet not fully understood complex phenomenon that requires consideration in any attempt to increase load and efficiency. Thus combustion concept development requires a reliable yet robust methodology for detecting knock in order to ensure knock-free engine operation. Operating parameters such as rail pressure, start of injection and amount of diesel injected are the factors that influence oscillations in the in-cylinder pressure trace after the start of combustion. Oscillations in the pre-mixed combustion phase, or ringing, are caused by the rapid conversion of large parts of the injected diesel.
Journal Article

Experimental Optimization of a Small Bore Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine with Direct Fuel Injection

2016-04-05
2016-01-0783
Dual fuel combustion processes, which burn varying ratios of natural gas and diesel, are an attempt to reach high efficiencies similar to diesel engines while exploiting the CO2 savings potential of natural gas. As shown in earlier studies, the main challenge of this combustion process is the high emission of unburned hydrocarbons during low load operation. Many publications have focused on a layout which utilizes port injection of natural gas and a direct injection of diesel to initiate combustion. However, previous studies indicated that a sequential direct injection of both fuels is more promising. It enables charge stratification of natural gas and air, whereby a remarkable reduction of the unburned hydrocarbon emissions was observed. This work develops this approach further, utilizing a low pressure direct injection of natural gas.
Technical Paper

Engine Operating Parameter-based Heat Transfer Simulation to Predict Engine Warm-up

2014-04-01
2014-01-1103
Optimization of engine warm-up behavior has traditionally made use of experimental investigations. However, thermal engine models are a more cost-effective alternative and allow evaluation of the fuel saving potential of thermal management measures in different driving cycles. To simulate the thermal behavior of engines in general and engine warm-up in particular, knowledge of heat distribution throughout all engine components is essential. To this end, gas-side heat transfer inside the combustion chamber and in the exhaust port must be modeled as accurately as possible. Up to now, map-based models have been used to simulate heat transfer and fuel consumption; these two values are calculated as a function of engine speed and load. To extend the scope of these models, it is increasingly desirable to calculate gas-side heat transfer and fuel consumption as a function of engine operating parameters in order to evaluate different ECU databases.
Journal Article

State of the Art and Future Trends of Electric Drives and Power Electronics for Automotive Engineering

2014-04-01
2014-01-1888
Discussions about the optimal technology of propulsion systems for future ground vehicles have been raising over the last few years. Several options include different types of technologies. However, those who are advocating conventional internal combustion engines are faced with the fact that fossil fuels are limited. Others favor hydrogen fuel as the solution for the future, either in combination with combustion engines or as an energy carrier for fuel cells. In any case, the production and storage of hydrogen is an ongoing challenge of numerous research works. Finally, there are battery-electric or hybrid propulsion systems in use, gaining more and more popularity worldwide. Ongoing advances in power electronics help to improve control systems within automotive applications. New developed or designed components enable more efficient system architectures and control.
Technical Paper

Expansion to Higher Efficiency - Investigations of the Atkinson Cycle in Small Combustion Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0059
Small combustion engines can be found in various applications in daily use (e.g. as propulsion of boats, scooters, motorbikes, power-tools, mobile power units, etc.) and have predominated these markets for a long time. Today some upcoming competitive technologies in the field of electrification can be observed and have already shown great technical advances. Therefore, small combustion engines have to keep their present advantages while concurrently minimizing their disadvantages in order to remain the predominant technology in the future. Whereas large combustion engines are most efficient thermal engines, small engines still suffer from significantly lower efficiencies caused by a disadvantageous surface to volume ratio. Thus, the enhancement of efficiency will play a key role in the development of future small combustion engines. One promising possibility to improve efficiency is the use of a longer expansion than compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Potential of E85 Direct Injection for Passenger Car Application

2010-10-25
2010-01-2086
This paper presents an analysis of the potential of E85 (a mixture of 85 % (bio)ethanol and 15 % gasoline) as a fuel for spark-ignition (SI) direct-injection internal combustion engines. This involves investigation of not only application to downsizing concepts with high specific power but also behavior relating to emissions and efficiency at both part and full load. Measurements while running on gasoline were used for comparison purposes. The first stage involved analysis using 1D simulation of two different downsizing concepts with regard to turbocharging potential and performance. Following this, various influential parameters such as injector position, injection pressure, compression ratio, degree of turbocharging etc. were investigated on a single cylinder research engine. In the case of high pressure direct injection, particulate emissions also play an important role, so particulate count and particulate size distribution were also studied in detail.
Technical Paper

Exhaust System Simulation of a 2-Cylinder 2-Stroke Engine Including Heat Transfer Effects

2010-09-28
2010-32-0035
The exhaust system design has an important influence on the charge mass and the composition of the charge inside the cylinder, due to its gas dynamic behavior. Therefore the exhaust system determines the characteristics of the indicated mean effective pressure as well. The knowledge of the heat transfer and the post-combustion process of fuel losses inside the exhaust system are important for the thermodynamic analysis of the working process. However, the simulation of the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall is time consuming, due to the demand for a transient simulation of many revolutions until a cyclic steady condition is reached. Therefore, the exhaust pipe wall temperature is set to constant in the conventional CFD simulation of 2-stroke engines. This paper covers the discussion of a simulation strategy for the exhaust system of a 2-cylinder 2-stroke engine until cyclic steady condition including the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synergies in a Vehicle for Variable Mixtures of CNG and Hydrogen

2009-04-20
2009-01-1420
Synergies in infrastructure and customer acceptance can be achieved by running internal combustion engines on mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. Alongside the bridging effect between natural gas and hydrogen, such mixing offers advantages in terms of reduced emissions and improvements to the combustion process. The wide ignition limits and high flame speed of hydrogen have as positive an impact on the combustion of H2NG mixture as does the higher energy density of natural gas on range. A bi-fuel gasoline-natural gas vehicle was adapted to operation with gasoline, natural gas, hydrogen and any H2NG mixtures. For that purpose, the intake manifold was replaced by an aluminum construction, the injectors were replaced and the ECU had to be adjusted. Essentially quality-controlled hydrogen operation was possible throughout the engine map.
Journal Article

New and Innovative Combustion Systems for the H2-ICE: Compression Ignition and Combined Processes

2009-04-20
2009-01-1421
Hydrogen nowadays is considered one promising energy carrier for future mobility scenarios. Its application as a fuel in ICEs greatly benefits from Direct Injection (DI) strategies, which help to reduce the disadvantages of PFI systems such as air displacement effects, knocking, backfiring and low power density. In SI-engines one appropriate way to increase efficiency is the reduction of wall heat losses by jet- and/or wall-guided mixture formation systems. In theory, Compression Ignition (CI) systems employing a diffusion type of combustion allow for a significant raise in compression ratio and, thus, are likely to excel the SI concept in terms of efficiency. The following paper deals with results obtained from investigations on H2 Compression-Ignition (H2-CI) combustion systems by employing both thermodynamic research engines and 3D CFD simulation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Thermal Vehicle Brake Behavior During the Vehicle's Development Phase by Co-Simulation

2007-10-07
2007-01-3935
The mathematical thermal design of the vehicle brakes will lead to success if all influence parameters such as friction (fading effect), car geometry and inertia, brake amplifier, tire, convective heat flow, heat conductance and heat radiation are taken into consideration. In addition to a lot of design criteria, the thermal stability of the vehicle brake is becoming more and more important because of permanently increasing engine powers and weight of the vehicles. This requires both stable friction behavior in the contact zone between brake lining and brake disk and a sufficient transfer of the friction energy by means of convective heat flow. In order to accomplish these two tasks, considerable expense on a brake test bed and innumerable brake trials are necessary. It must be guarantied at the end of the brake design process that the vehicle reaches the required braking distance and the thermal stability of the brake, e.g. after several freeway braking sequences.
Technical Paper

Application and Validation of the 3D CFD Method for a Hydrogen Fueled IC Engine with Internal Mixture Formation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0448
Hydrogen is seen as a promising energy carrier for a future mobility scenario. Applied as fuel in IC engines with internal mixture formation, hydrogen opens up new vistas for the layout of the combustion system. The 3D CFD simulation of internal mixture formation as well as combustion helps to understand the complex in-cylinder processes and provides a powerful tool to optimize the engine's working cycle. The performance of standard simulation models for mixture formation as well as the performance of a user-defined combustion model applied in a commercial CFD-code is discussed within this article. The 3D CFD simulations are validated with measurements obtained from a thermodynamic and from an optical research engine respectively.
Technical Paper

H2-Direct Injection – A Highly Promising Combustion Concept

2005-04-11
2005-01-0108
Hydrogen is frequently cited as a future energy carrier. Hydrogen allows a further optimization of internal combustion engines, especially with direct injection. In order to assess various concepts, detailed thermodynamic analyses were carried out. Effects, which can be neglected with conventional fuels (e.g. losses due to injection during compression stroke) are considered. These basics as well as several results from test bed investigations are described within this article. Wall heat losses were found to have a major influence on overall efficiency and are thus investigated in detail, based on local surface temperature measurement. Finally, concepts that allow an increase in engine efficiency and lowest NOx emissions are demonstrated.
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