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Technical Paper

Application of Electrically Driven Coolant Pumps on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0074
A reduction in CO2 emissions and consequently fuel consumption is essential in the context of future greenhouse gas limits. With respect to the thermodynamic loss analysis of an internal combustion engine, a gap between the net indicated thermal efficiency and the brake thermal efficiency is recognizable. This share is caused by friction losses, which are the focus of this research project. The parasitic loss reduction potential by replacing the mechanical water pump with an electric coolant pump is discussed in the course of this work. This is not a novel approach in light duty vehicles, whereas in commercial vehicles a rigid drive of all auxiliaries is standard. Taking into account an implementation of a 48-V power system in the short or medium term, an electrification of auxiliary components becomes feasible. The application of electric coolant pumps on an Euro VI certified 6-cylinder in-line heavy-duty diesel engine regarding fuel economy was thus performed.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Real Drive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0030
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmentally friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles operated in real world conditions is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated into a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently, it is possible to predict real drive emissions RDE and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort.
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0042
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss Analysis of a High Power Motorcycle Engine with Focus on Alcohol Blended Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0070
The development of future internal combustion engines and fuels is influenced by decreasing energy resources, restriction of emission legislation and increasing environmental awareness of humanity itself. Alternative renewable fuels have, in dependency on their physical and chemical properties, on the production process and on the raw material, the potential to contribute a better well-to-wheel-CO2-emission-balance in automotive and nonautomotive applications. The focus of this research is the usage of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol, in motorcycle high power engines. The different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of motorcycle applications in comparison to automobile applications raise the need for specific research in this area.
Journal Article

Advanced Heat Transfer and Underhood Airflow Investigation with Focus on Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) of Snowmobiles

2017-06-28
2017-01-9180
The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0621
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Conventional Motorcycles with the Focus on Hybridization

2016-11-08
2016-32-0031
The release of the “Regulation No. 168/2013” for the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel motorcycles and quadricycles of the European Union started a new challenge for the motorcycle industry. One goal of the European Union is to achieve emission parity between passenger cars (EURO 6) and motorcycles (EURO 5) in 2020. The hybridization of motorcycle powertrains is one way to achieve these strict legislation limits. In the automotive sector, hybridization is well investigated and has already shown improvements of fuel consumption, efficiency and emission behavior. Equally, motorcycle applications have a high potential to improve efficiency and to meet customer needs as fun to drive as well. This paper describes a methodical approach to analyze conventional motorcycles regarding the energy and power demand for different driving cycles and driving conditions. Therefore, a dynamic or forward vehicle simulation within MATLAB Simulink is used.
Journal Article

Investigations and Analysis of Working Processes of Two-Stroke Engines with the Focus on Wall Heat Flux

2016-11-08
2016-32-0028
Small displacement two-stroke engines are widely used as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion systems for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years, considerable progress regarding emission reduction has been reached. Nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore, the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. With the application of suitable analyses methods it is possible to find improving potential of the working processes of these engines. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Limits of Efficiency Enhancement of Small Displacement Single-Cylinder Engines

2015-11-17
2015-32-0817
Millions of small displacement single-cylinder engines are used for the propulsion of scooters, motorcycles, small boats and others. These SI-engines represent the basis of an affordable mobility in many countries, but at the same time their efficiency is quite low. Today, the limited fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate require a sustainable development of combustion engines, the reduction of fuel consumption being an important factor. A variety of different strategies (turbo-charging, cylinder deactivation, direct injection, etc.) are investigated here to increase the efficiency of multi-cylinder engines. In the case of small displacement single-cylinder engines, other strategies are required because of their special design and the high pressure on costs. In the context of this paper different layout parameters which have an influence on the working process are investigated, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of small displacement single-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

Layout and Development of a 300 cm3 High Performance 2S-LPDI Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0832
In consideration of the fact that in extreme Enduro competitions two-stroke motorcycles are still dominating, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, with a long tradition in two-stroke technology, has developed a new 300 cm3 two-stroke motorcycle engine. The 2-stroke LPDI (Low Pressure Direct Injection) technology was originally developed for the 50 cm3 Scooter and moped market in Europe. In 50 cm3 applications the LPDI technology fulfils the EURO 4 emission standard (2017) [1]. In a next step the LPDI technology was applied to a 250 cm3 Enduro engine demonstrator vehicle. Based on the results of the demonstrator, a complete new high performance 300 cm3 engine was developed. The development of this new engine will be described in this publication. Some interesting aspects of the layout with 3D-CFD methods and also 1D-CFD simulation to optimize the exhaust system by DoE methods are discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Air Cooled 50cm3 Scooter Euro 4 Application of the Two-Stroke LPDI Technology

2014-11-11
2014-32-0008
The Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, has presented several applications of its 2-stroke LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology in the previous years ([1], [2], [3]). In order to improve the competitiveness of the 2-stroke LPDI technology, an air cooled 50cm3 scooter application has been developed. All previous applications have been liquid cooled. This air cooled application demonstrates the EURO 4 (2017) ability of the technology and shows that the 2S-LPDI technology can also be applied to low cost air-cooled engines. Hence, the complete scooter and moped fleet can be equipped with this technology in order to fulfil both the emission standards and the COP (conformity of production) requirements of Euro 4 emission stage. The paper presents the Euro 4 Scooter results and describes the efficient conversion process of the existing carburetor engine to the LPDI version.
Technical Paper

Experimental Verification and Drivability Investigations of a Turbo Charged 2-Cylinder Motorcycle Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0112
There are several reasons for equipping an internal combustion engine with a turbo-charger. The most important motivation for motorcycle use is to increase the power to weight ratio. Focusing on the special boundary conditions of motorcycles, like the wide engine speed range or the extraordinarily high demands on response behavior, automotive downsizing technologies cannot be transferred directly to this field of application. This led to the main question: Is it possible to design a turbo-charged motorcycle engine with satisfactory drivability and response behavior? The layout of the charged motorcycle engine was derived by simulation and had to be verified by experimental investigations. Main components, like the turbo charger or the waste gate control as well as the influence of the increasing back pressure on the combustion, were verified by test bench measurements. Afterwards the operation strategy in general was investigated and applied to the prototype engine.
Technical Paper

Engine Operating Parameter-based Heat Transfer Simulation to Predict Engine Warm-up

2014-04-01
2014-01-1103
Optimization of engine warm-up behavior has traditionally made use of experimental investigations. However, thermal engine models are a more cost-effective alternative and allow evaluation of the fuel saving potential of thermal management measures in different driving cycles. To simulate the thermal behavior of engines in general and engine warm-up in particular, knowledge of heat distribution throughout all engine components is essential. To this end, gas-side heat transfer inside the combustion chamber and in the exhaust port must be modeled as accurately as possible. Up to now, map-based models have been used to simulate heat transfer and fuel consumption; these two values are calculated as a function of engine speed and load. To extend the scope of these models, it is increasingly desirable to calculate gas-side heat transfer and fuel consumption as a function of engine operating parameters in order to evaluate different ECU databases.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Range Extender Technology for Hybrid Electric City Scooters

2012-10-23
2012-32-0083
Electric driving is generally limited to short distances in an emission sensible urban environment. In the present situation with high cost electric storage and long charging duration hybridization is the key to enable electric driving. In comparison to the passenger car segment, where numerous manufacturers are already producing and offering different hybrid configurations for their premium class models, the two wheeler sector is not yet affected by this trend. The main reason for the retarded implementation of this new hybrid technology is its high system costs, as they cannot be covered by a reasonable product price. Especially for the two wheeler class L1e, with a maximum speed of 45 km/h and an engine displacement of less than 50 cm₃, the cost factor is highly important and decisive for its market acceptance, because the majority of vehicles are still low-cost products equipped with simple carbureted 2-stroke engines.
Technical Paper

Expansion to Higher Efficiency - Investigations of the Atkinson Cycle in Small Combustion Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0059
Small combustion engines can be found in various applications in daily use (e.g. as propulsion of boats, scooters, motorbikes, power-tools, mobile power units, etc.) and have predominated these markets for a long time. Today some upcoming competitive technologies in the field of electrification can be observed and have already shown great technical advances. Therefore, small combustion engines have to keep their present advantages while concurrently minimizing their disadvantages in order to remain the predominant technology in the future. Whereas large combustion engines are most efficient thermal engines, small engines still suffer from significantly lower efficiencies caused by a disadvantageous surface to volume ratio. Thus, the enhancement of efficiency will play a key role in the development of future small combustion engines. One promising possibility to improve efficiency is the use of a longer expansion than compression stroke.
Journal Article

Layout of a Charged Power Sport Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0069
The main target for the development of power sport engines is and will be in future the increase of the power-to-weight ratio. However, the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is getting more and more important as future legislation and increasing customer demands ask for lower fuel consumption. One possible technology for CO₂ reduction which is widely used in automotive applications is downsizing by reducing the engine capacity and increasing the specific power by charging strategies. Focusing on power sport applications, like motorcycles, the automotive downsizing technologies cannot be transferred without major modifications. The essential difference to automotive applications is the extraordinary response behavior of today's motorcycles, as well as the large engine speed spread. Additionally, packaging and cost reasons exclude the direct transfer of highly complex automotive technology, like two-stage charging, cam-phasing, etc., to motorcycle applications.
Technical Paper

Concept Study of Range Extender Applications in Electric Scooters

2011-11-08
2011-32-0592
Nowadays, politicians are forced by air pollution prevention to demand zero emission vehicles (ZEV) in the form of pure electric vehicles. The poor capacity to weight factor of actual batteries compared to any kind of liquid or gaseous hydro-carbon fuel is the main reason for the retarded implementation of ZEV. Solutions offered by automobile manufacturers are mild to full hybrid powertrains based on the well established ICE platform. The difficulty of those approaches of electrification is to compete with the performance and benefit costumers expect from standard automobiles. Pure electric vehicles are rare and often disappointing regarding range and/or performance. Additionally the costs for such vehicles, which are mainly driven by the battery prices, are comparatively high, impeding their market entrance and acceptance. Low price electric city scooters are actually offered as pure electric vehicles in a wide variety of different models.
Technical Paper

Charging and Powersport for Motorcycles: A Contradiction?

2011-11-08
2011-32-0585
In this study, investigations on charging strategies for motorcycle applications have been performed on the basis of modern charging concepts. These investigations had been driven by the goal of CO₂ reduction and optimization of packaging size, while maintaining the extraordinary dynamic response behavior of modern motorcycle engines. Based on experimental investigations of the boundary conditions and restrictions of motorcycle applications in contrast to automotive applications, intense experimental test bench and on the road investigations of the stationary and transient behavior of charging strategies have been performed. These investigations covered automotive state-of-the-art charged engines as well as charged motorcycle applications. With these results, simulations of the air path for stationary and transient operation were used in order to evaluate the potential of several charging strategies for motorcycle applications.
Technical Paper

A Demonstration of the Emission Behaviour of 50 cm3 Mopeds in Europe Including Unregulated Components and Particulate Matter

2011-11-08
2011-32-0572
The European emission legislation for two-wheeler vehicles driven by engines of ≤ 50 cm₃ is continuously developing. One of the most important issues in the near future will be the finalization of the European Commission's proposals for future steps in the emissions regulations as well as the verification of the impacts of current standards on the market. To have a basis for the discussion about these topics, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC) with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics of Graz University of Technology (IVT) carried out an extensive test program to show the actual emission situation of state-of-the-art mopeds including mass and number of particulate matter as well as unregulated gaseous components. One of the main goals of these tests was to measure exhaust emissions without any modifications to the engines of standard production vehicles available on the European market.
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