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Technical Paper

Development of a Biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) and Evaluation of its Biofidelity at the Component Level and at the Assembly Level

JAMA-JARI has developed a biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) by making several modifications to the Flex-PLI 2003 to improve usability, durability and biofidelity. Biofidelity evaluation for the Flex-PLI 2004 was estimated at the component level (thigh, knee, and leg individually) as well as at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex), using an objective impactor biofidelity evaluation system based on a method developed by Rhule et al. to eliminate any subjective prejudice in an impactor biofidelity evaluation. Applying the biofidelity evaluation system to the Flex-PLI 2004, the average impactor biofidelity rank (IBR) score became 1.22 at the component level and 1.26 at the assembly level. These IBR scores mean that the Flex-PLI 2004 has good biofidelity at the component level as well as at the assembly level.
Technical Paper

Development of an FE Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI 2003R) Model and Evaluation of its Biofidelity

A biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor, called Flex-PLI, was developed by the Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc. (JAMA) and the Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). Its latest version is called Flex-PLI 2003. The Flex-PLI 2003 responses have been validated at the component level (thigh, leg, and knee independently) but not at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex). Furthermore, there was no FE Flex-PLI model. This research developed a FE Flex-PLI 2003R model (Flex-PLI 2003R means that the thigh and leg mass of Flex-PLI 2003 is adjusted to AM 50). The FE Flex-PLI 2003R model biofidelity has been evaluated at both the component level and the assembly level, where it demonstrated high biofidelity.
Technical Paper

Development of a Biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

The European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee (EEVC) has proposed a test procedure to assess the protection vehicles provide to the lower extremity of pedestrians during a collision. This procedure utilizes a legform impactor developed by the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL). However, the TRL Pedestrian Legform Impactor (TRL-PLI) is composed of rigid long bones (cannot simulate the bone flexibility of the human) and rather stiff knee joint. The differences lead to a lack of biofidelity of the TRL-PLI, i.e., unnaturally stiff responses are observed. This study develops a biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) that can simulate human bone flexibility and human knee joint stiffness properly. The Flex-PLI can also measure many of the injury parameters, long bone strains at multiple locations, knee ligament elongations, and the compression forces between the femoral condyles and tibial plateau in comparison to the TRL-PLI.
Technical Paper

Reconsideration of injury criteria for pedestrian subsystem legform test~Problems of rigid legform impactor

The legform impactor proposed by EEVC/WG17 is composed of a rigid thigh segment and a rigid lower leg segment. Human bone, however, has flexibility, causing some differences between the EEVC rigid legform impactor and the human leg. This research analyzes the influence of the differences (rigid versus flexible) on the injury criteria. It also reanalyzes the upper tibia acceleration with regard to the fracture index. The rigid legform impactor cannot simulate bone bending motion, so the injury criteria should consider the legform rigidity. It means the injury criteria need to include the bone bending effect. From several PMHS test results, the shearing displacement becomes 23 mm and 20 degrees for bending angle including the bone bending effect. However, the bone bending effect will change with the loading conditions. Therefore, to establish a certain injury criteria for a rigid legform impactor is impossible. To solve this problem, a flexible legform impactor seems to be needed.