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Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Journal Article

Design and Position Control of a Novel Electric Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0812
The electric vehicles and the intelligent vehicles put forward to new requirements for the brake system, such as the vacuum-independent braking, automatic or active braking, and regenerative braking, which are the key link for the vehicle’s safety and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this article, a novel integrated power-assisted actuator of brake system is proposed to satisfy the brake system requirements of the electric vehicles and intelligent vehicles. The electronic brake booster system is designed to achieve the function of boosting pedal force of driver, being independent on vacuum source, supplying autonomous or active braking. It is mainly composed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, and a reaction disk. The scheme design and power-assisted braking control are the key for the electronic actuator.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Temperature on the Ignition Initiation Location of a Pre-Chamber Generated Hot Turbulent Jet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0184
Ignition location is one of the important factors that affect the thermal efficiency, exhaust emissions and knock sensitivity in premixed-charge ignition engines. However, the ignition initiation locations of pre-chamber generated turbulent jet ignition, which is a promising ignition enhancement method, are not clearly understood due to the complex physics behind it. Motivated by this, the ignition initiation location of a transient turbulent jet in a constant volume combustor is analyzed by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the CFD simulations of this work, commercial codes KIVA-3 V release 2 and an in-house-developed chemical solver with a detailed mechanism for H2/air mixtures are used. Comparisons are performed between simulated and experimental ignition initiation locations, and they agree well with one another. A detailed parametric study of the influence of in-cylinder temperature on the ignition initiation location is also performed.
Technical Paper

A Novel Driver Model for Real-time Simulation on Electric Powertrain Test Bench

2017-10-08
2017-01-2460
In this paper, a novel driver model is proposed to track vehicle speed in MIL (Model-in-the-Loop) test system, which has structural consistency with HIL (Hardware-in-the-Loop) test system. First, the MIL test system which contains models of driver, vehicle and test bench is established. Second, according to the connections of the established models in Matlab/Simulink environment, the vehicle speed is calculated in vehicle model. Emphatically, through the deviation between driving cycle speed and calculated vehicle speed, PI controller in driver model adjusts the vehicle speed to ideal point through sending the torque command to drive motor, the ILC (Iterative Learning Control) controller modifies and stores P value of PI controller. Then, in order to obtain the better modification of PI controller, iterative learning control algorithm is deeply researched in term of types and parameters.
Journal Article

A New Variable Screening Method for Design Optimization of Large-Scale Problems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0478
Design optimization methods are commonly used for weight reduction subjecting to multiple constraints in automotive industry. One of the major challenges remained is to deal with a large number of design variables for large-scale design optimization problems effectively. In this paper, a new approach based on fuzzy rough set is proposed to address this issue. The concept of rough set theory is to deal with redundant information and seek for a reduced design variable set. The proposed method first exploits fuzzy rough set to screen out the insignificant or redundant design variables with regard to the output functions, then uses the reduced design variable set for design optimization. A vehicle body structure is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and compare with a traditional weighted sensitivity based main effect approach.
Technical Paper

Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations Applied to Automotive Aerodynamics

2015-04-14
2015-01-1544
One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoiler under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Wiper System and Noise Prediction of Blade Reverse

2015-03-30
2015-01-0106
Wiper noise generated in the wiping process is one of the main influence factors affecting the driving comfort. Since the dynamic contact pressure of the contact between a blade and a windshield glass is difficult to be measured, it is also difficult to predict the degree of the wiper noise. In this paper, in the view of the reversal noise problem of a passenger-vehicle windscreen wiper system, the system dynamic models of the both wipers on the sides of the driver and copilot were built as considering the blade deformation and the elastic contact between the blades and the windscreen glass, including the crank pivot, the four linkage mechanism, the wiper blades, the wiper arms and the windscreen glass. The motion of the wiper system and the pressure distributions between the blades and the windscreen glass were analyzed under the half-dry condition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Windshield Wiper Reversal Impact and Its Suppression by Structural Design

2015-03-30
2015-01-0108
With the increasing of people's demand for comfort of vehicles, the noise generated by the reverse of windshield wiper causes wide attention. In this paper, as the front windshield wiper of one car is considered, the impacts of the preload of wiper lever spring, the torsional stiffness of blade neck and the flexible connection between the wiper arm and the wiper lever on the vibration excitation applied to the front windshield are analyzed based on the multi-body dynamic model of wiper system. The dynamic model includes the crank pivot, the four linkage mechanism, the wiper blades, the wiper arms and the windscreen glass which has been established considering with elastic contact between the wiper blade and the front windshield. Based on the analysis results the dimensions of cross-section of the wiper blade rubber and the flexible connection between the wiper arm and the wiper lever are designed to reduce the quick-return impact of wiper lever.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Technical Paper

A Transportable Instrumentation Package for In-Vehicle On-Road Data Collection for Driver Research

2013-04-08
2013-01-0202
We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours.
Journal Article

An Efficient, One-Dimensional, Finite Element Helical Spring Model for Use in Planar Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1118
The helical spring is one of fundamental mechanical elements used in various industrial applications such as valves, suspension mechanisms, shock and vibration absorbers, hand levers, etc. In high speed applications, for instance in the internal combustion engine or in reciprocating compressor valves, helical springs are subjected to dynamic and impact loading, which can result in a phenomenon called “surge”. Hence, proper design and selection of helical springs should consider modeling the dynamic and impact response. In order to correctly characterize the physics of a helical spring and its response to dynamic excitations, a comprehensive model of spring elasticity for various spring coil and wire geometries, spring inertial effects as well as contacts between the windings leading to a non-linear spring force behavior is required. In practical applications, such models are utilized in parametric design and optimization studies.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Topology Optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Frame Using Multi-Loading Cases Optimization

2008-06-23
2008-01-1734
This presentation evaluates the contribution of multi-objective programming scheme for the conceptual design of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle frame's structure using topological optimization. The compromise programming method was applied to describe the statically loaded multicompliance topology optimization. Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) was used as the interpolation scheme to indicate the dependence of material modulus upon regularized element densities. The sequential convex programming approach was applied to solve the optimization problem. The application on the chassis frame was used to demonstrate the characteristics of the presented methodologies based on the commercial software package OptiStruct.
Technical Paper

Rigidity and Strength Analysis and Structure Optimization of one Electric Tractor's Frame Based on FEA

2007-10-30
2007-01-4288
In this paper, the finite element model for static analysis of an electric tractor's frame is presented firstly, and the rigidity and strength of one electric tractor's frame is calculated. Based upon the analysis results, the topology and shape of this electric tractor's frame is optimized. As to the topology optimization, the optimization goal under multiple load cases is defined and the frame is optimized by two steps-one is to determine the position of the transverse rails using solid elements which can simulate the material-filling space, another is to obtain the shape of the frame in which shell elements are applied as to increase the calculation efficiency. After the topology optimization the frame's stiffness is improved significantly but there still is local stress concentration. So the shape of the stress concentration area is optimized using control points method, and the greatest stress is reduced below the strength limits.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Straight-Line Type Assist Characteristic of Electric Power-Assisted Steering

2004-03-08
2004-01-1107
Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) is a new power steering technology that will define the future of vehicle steering. The assist of EPAS is the function of the steering wheel torque and vehicle velocity. The assist characteristic of EPAS is set by control software, which is one of the key issues of EPAS. The straight-line type assist characteristic has been used in some current EPAS products, but its influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel hasn't been explicitly studied in theory. In this paper, the straight-line type assist characteristic is analyzed theoretically. Then a whole vehicle dynamic model used to study the straight-line type assist characteristic is built with ADAMS/Car and validated with DCF (Driver Control Files) mode of ADAMS/Car. Based on the whole vehicle dynamic model, the straight-line type assist characteristic's influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel is investigated.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Pedestrian Lower Limb Non-Linear 3- D Finite Element Model

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC21
Lower limb injury is becoming an increasingly important concern in vehicle safety for both occupants and pedestrians. To enable vehicle manufacturers to better understand the biomechanical effects of design changes, it is deemed beneficial to employ a biomechanically fidelic finite element model of the human lower limb. The model developed in this study includes long bones (tibia, fibula, femur) and flat bone (patella) as deformable bodies. The pelvis and foot bones are modeled as rigid bodies connected to the femur and tibia/fibula via rotational spring-dashpots. The knee is defined by scanned bone surface geometry and is surrounded by the menisci, major ligaments, and patellar tendon. Finite elements used to model include 6- and 8-node solids for cartilage, menisci, surrounding muscles, and cancellous bone; 3- and 4-node shells for skin and cortical bone; and nonlinear spring-dashpots for ligaments.
Technical Paper

Steering and Suspension Test and Analysis

2000-05-01
2000-01-1626
This paper will discuss the various tools used to measure the steering and suspension properties of a vehicle. Measuring the kinematic and compliance properties of the steering and suspension systems is an important part of the vehicle development process. Some of the ways these measurements are used include confirmation of vehicle design and build, to create and correlate CAE models, and for diagnosis of steering and handling concerns. Understanding exactly how the steering and suspension systems are performing is an important step in the development process. We have found that by employing the proper tools and methods, plus having a defined vehicle dynamics fingerprint process, that most issues and concerns can be successfully resolved.
Technical Paper

Sheet Forming with Pulsating Blankholder Modeling and Experiments

1999-09-28
1999-01-3157
Robust processing window and subsequent quality of part are major concerns during sheet metal stamping. The sheet restraining force is a key parameter controlling metal flow, thus influencing formability and quality of the resulting part. Recent advances in press and die building provided capability of altering the restraining force (RF) during a stamping stroke via pulsating blankholder force (PBF). An outcome of this technology would be an increase in the maximum drawing depth resulting from a decrease in the average blankholder force. In this study, laboratory and numerical experiments were performed in an effort to better understand the effect of various PBF trajectories on stamping performance. A working numerical model using explicit code was successfully developed for time effective simulation of drawn cups with pulsating binder force. Preliminary results of this ongoing project are presented. The pulsating force trajectory was found to have a beneficial effect on drawability.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Driver Inflator Predictor Variables with the Viscous Criterion for the Mid-Sized Male, Instrumented Test Dummy in the Chest-on-Module Condition

1999-03-01
1999-01-0763
A new inflator specification, the “inflator thrust variable,” was developed to better explain measured mid-sized male, instrumented test dummy responses in the chest-on-module test condition. Specifically, controlled laboratory experiments were conducted with non-production, driver airbag modules with inflators of various outputs and gas constituents in an effort to assess their effects on a pertinent occupant response. Regression analyses showed that the inflator thrust variable is a better predictor of the observed variation in peak viscous criterion responses than either peak tank pressure or the related pressure rise rate when inflators of differing gas composition were compared.
Technical Paper

Driver Eye Height and Sight Distance on Vertical Curves

1981-11-01
811286
Analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of stopping sight distance on vertical curves to driver eye height and other parameters entering into the stopping sight-distance equations. Sight distance was found to be relatively insensitive to eye height. On a given hill crest, sight distance for a driver whose eye height is 6-inches lower than the design eye height (3.75 ft) is only 5% less than the design sight distance. On the other hand, stopping distance is very sensitive to travel speed, pavement friction and reaction time. For example, a 1.8 mph decrease in speed reduces stopping distance by the same amount that a 6-inch decrease in eye height reduces sight distance. Also, sight distance is about 2.5 times more sensitive to obstacle height than eye height. It is argued that reductions in travel speed since the introduction of the 55-mph speed limit compensate for any recent or projected decreases in driver eye height.
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