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Journal Article

Design and Position Control of a Novel Electric Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0812
The electric vehicles and the intelligent vehicles put forward to new requirements for the brake system, such as the vacuum-independent braking, automatic or active braking, and regenerative braking, which are the key link for the vehicle’s safety and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this article, a novel integrated power-assisted actuator of brake system is proposed to satisfy the brake system requirements of the electric vehicles and intelligent vehicles. The electronic brake booster system is designed to achieve the function of boosting pedal force of driver, being independent on vacuum source, supplying autonomous or active braking. It is mainly composed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, and a reaction disk. The scheme design and power-assisted braking control are the key for the electronic actuator.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Temperature on the Ignition Initiation Location of a Pre-Chamber Generated Hot Turbulent Jet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0184
Ignition location is one of the important factors that affect the thermal efficiency, exhaust emissions and knock sensitivity in premixed-charge ignition engines. However, the ignition initiation locations of pre-chamber generated turbulent jet ignition, which is a promising ignition enhancement method, are not clearly understood due to the complex physics behind it. Motivated by this, the ignition initiation location of a transient turbulent jet in a constant volume combustor is analyzed by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the CFD simulations of this work, commercial codes KIVA-3 V release 2 and an in-house-developed chemical solver with a detailed mechanism for H2/air mixtures are used. Comparisons are performed between simulated and experimental ignition initiation locations, and they agree well with one another. A detailed parametric study of the influence of in-cylinder temperature on the ignition initiation location is also performed.
Technical Paper

A Novel Driver Model for Real-time Simulation on Electric Powertrain Test Bench

2017-10-08
2017-01-2460
In this paper, a novel driver model is proposed to track vehicle speed in MIL (Model-in-the-Loop) test system, which has structural consistency with HIL (Hardware-in-the-Loop) test system. First, the MIL test system which contains models of driver, vehicle and test bench is established. Second, according to the connections of the established models in Matlab/Simulink environment, the vehicle speed is calculated in vehicle model. Emphatically, through the deviation between driving cycle speed and calculated vehicle speed, PI controller in driver model adjusts the vehicle speed to ideal point through sending the torque command to drive motor, the ILC (Iterative Learning Control) controller modifies and stores P value of PI controller. Then, in order to obtain the better modification of PI controller, iterative learning control algorithm is deeply researched in term of types and parameters.
Journal Article

Surface Fatigue Cracking Behavior of a CrN-Coated Tool Steel Influenced by Sliding Cycles and Sliding Energy Density

2017-03-28
2017-01-0303
Light-weighting of vehicles is one of the challenges for transportation industry due to the increasing pressure of demands in better fuel economy and environment protection. Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are considered as prominent material of choice to realize lightweight auto body and structures at least in near term. Stamping of AHSS with conventional die materials and surface coatings, however, results in frequent die failures and undesired panel surface finish. A chromium nitride (CrN) coating with plasma nitriding case hardened layer on a die material (duplex treatment) is found to offer good wear and galling resistances. The coating failure initiates from fatigue cracking on the coating surface due to cyclic sliding frictions. In this work, cyclic inclined sliding wear test was used to imitate a stamping process for study on development of coating fatigue cracking, including crack length and spacing vs. sliding-cycles and sliding energy densities.
Technical Paper

Effects Analysis of Torsion Bar Spring Modelling Precision on Properties of Pre-Setting Process

2016-04-05
2016-01-1327
The study of mechanical properties special in the characteristics of elastic element is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since torsion bar spring acts as an important part of elastic element, and improves performance of torsion bar spring is of great concern. The effects of the torsion bar spring pre-setting precision on the presetting performance are presented. Based on elastic-plastic theories, the algebraic model of torsion bar spring is established to analyze the stress, torque and residual stress under the yield and plastic conditions in pre-setting process. Then, the stress and strain states of various torsion bar springs in different conditions are simulated using the validated finite element model in ABAQUS software. The simulation results show the effects of torsion error on the pre-setting performance are less than 5% in the pre-setting process.
Journal Article

A Semi-Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Diesel Blends for Combustion Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0583
With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. To seek for an optimized volumetric ratio for ABE-diesel blends, the previous work in our team has experimentally investigated and analyzed the combustion features of ABE-diesel blends with different volumetric ratio (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %) in a constant volume chamber. It was found that an increased amount of acetone would lead to a significant advancement of combustion phasing whereas butanol would compensate the advancing effect. Both spray dynamic and chemistry reaction dynamic are of great importance in explaining the unique combustion characteristic of ABE-diesel blend. In this study, a semi-detailed chemical mechanism is constructed and used to model ABE-diesel spray combustion in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Long Fiber Reinforced Plastics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0698
Long fiber reinforced plastics (LFRP) have exhibited superior mechanical performance and outstanding design flexibility, bringing them with increasing popularity in the automotive structural design. Due to the injection molding process, the distribution of long fibers varies at different locations throughout the part, resulting in anisotropic and non-uniform mechanical properties of the final LFRP parts. Images from X-ray CT scan of the materials show that local volume fraction of the long fibers tends to be higher at core than at skin layer. Also fibers are bundled and tangled to form clusters. Most of the current micromechanical material models used for LFRP are extended from those for short fibers without adequate validation. The effect of the complexity of long fibers on the material properties is not appropriately considered. Thus, modeling of these materials is lagging behind the material manufacturing and design development, which in turn limits their further development.
Technical Paper

A Test Bench for the Turbocharger Fatigue Life Based on the Self-Circulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0429
The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Technical Paper

Life Prediction of Shift Valve for Wet Shift Clutch under Abrasive Wear

2015-04-14
2015-01-0682
In the present paper a degradation assessment and life prediction method has been proposed for electro-hydraulic shift valve applied to control wet shift clutch in Power-shift steering transmission (PSST). Unlike traditional analysis of contaminant sensitivity, our work is motivated by the failure mechanisms of abrasive wear with a mathematic model. Plowing process included in abrasion will consecutively increase the roughness of mating surfaces and thereby enlarge the clearance space for leaking more fluid. It is an overwhelming wear mechanism in the degradation of shift valve within serious-contaminated fluid. Herein a mathematic model for assessment and prediction is proposed by considering particle morphology and abrasion theory. Such model has been verified for its applicability and accuracy through comparison between theoretical and experimental results. Assuming the proposed model to be general, valve wearing behavior in any hydraulic system can be simulated.
Journal Article

Very High Cycle Fatigue of Cast Aluminum Alloys under Variable Humidity Levels

2015-04-14
2015-01-0556
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Cycle on Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of a High Silicon Molybdenum Ductile Cast Iron

2015-04-14
2015-01-0557
High silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) ductile cast iron (DCI) is commonly used for high temperature engine components, such as exhaust manifolds, which are also subjected to severe thermal cycles during vehicle operation. It is imperative to understand the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) behavior of HiSiMo DCI to accurately predict the durability of high temperature engine components. In this paper, the effect of the minimum temperature of a TMF cycle on TMF life and failure behavior is investigated. Tensile and low cycle fatigue data are first presented for temperatures up to 800°C. Next, TMF data are presented for maximum temperatures of 800°C and minimum cycle temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C. The data show that decreasing the minimum temperature has a detrimental effect on TMF life. The Smith-Watson-Topper parameter applied at the maximum temperature of the TMF cycle is found to correlate well with out-of-phase (OP) TMF life for all tested minimum temperatures.
Technical Paper

Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations Applied to Automotive Aerodynamics

2015-04-14
2015-01-1544
One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoiler under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Wiper System and Noise Prediction of Blade Reverse

2015-03-30
2015-01-0106
Wiper noise generated in the wiping process is one of the main influence factors affecting the driving comfort. Since the dynamic contact pressure of the contact between a blade and a windshield glass is difficult to be measured, it is also difficult to predict the degree of the wiper noise. In this paper, in the view of the reversal noise problem of a passenger-vehicle windscreen wiper system, the system dynamic models of the both wipers on the sides of the driver and copilot were built as considering the blade deformation and the elastic contact between the blades and the windscreen glass, including the crank pivot, the four linkage mechanism, the wiper blades, the wiper arms and the windscreen glass. The motion of the wiper system and the pressure distributions between the blades and the windscreen glass were analyzed under the half-dry condition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Windshield Wiper Reversal Impact and Its Suppression by Structural Design

2015-03-30
2015-01-0108
With the increasing of people's demand for comfort of vehicles, the noise generated by the reverse of windshield wiper causes wide attention. In this paper, as the front windshield wiper of one car is considered, the impacts of the preload of wiper lever spring, the torsional stiffness of blade neck and the flexible connection between the wiper arm and the wiper lever on the vibration excitation applied to the front windshield are analyzed based on the multi-body dynamic model of wiper system. The dynamic model includes the crank pivot, the four linkage mechanism, the wiper blades, the wiper arms and the windscreen glass which has been established considering with elastic contact between the wiper blade and the front windshield. Based on the analysis results the dimensions of cross-section of the wiper blade rubber and the flexible connection between the wiper arm and the wiper lever are designed to reduce the quick-return impact of wiper lever.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Journal Article

HC Traps for Gasoline and Ethanol Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1297
In-line hydrocarbon (HC) traps are not widely used to reduce HC emissions due to their limited durability, high platinum group metal (PGM) concentrations, complicated processing, and insufficient hydrocarbon (HC) retention temperatures required for efficient conversion by the three-way catalyst component. New trapping materials and system architectures were developed utilizing an engine dynamometer test equipped with dual Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers for tracking the adsorption and desorption of various HC species during the light-off period. Parallel laboratory reactor studies were conducted which show that the new HC trap formulations extend the traditional adsorption processes (i.e., based on physic-sorption and/or adsorption at acid sites) to chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in oligomerized, dehydro-cyclization, and partial coke formation.
Technical Paper

A Transportable Instrumentation Package for In-Vehicle On-Road Data Collection for Driver Research

2013-04-08
2013-01-0202
We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

2013-04-08
2013-01-0644
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
Journal Article

An Efficient, One-Dimensional, Finite Element Helical Spring Model for Use in Planar Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1118
The helical spring is one of fundamental mechanical elements used in various industrial applications such as valves, suspension mechanisms, shock and vibration absorbers, hand levers, etc. In high speed applications, for instance in the internal combustion engine or in reciprocating compressor valves, helical springs are subjected to dynamic and impact loading, which can result in a phenomenon called “surge”. Hence, proper design and selection of helical springs should consider modeling the dynamic and impact response. In order to correctly characterize the physics of a helical spring and its response to dynamic excitations, a comprehensive model of spring elasticity for various spring coil and wire geometries, spring inertial effects as well as contacts between the windings leading to a non-linear spring force behavior is required. In practical applications, such models are utilized in parametric design and optimization studies.
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