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Journal Article

Surface Fatigue Cracking Behavior of a CrN-Coated Tool Steel Influenced by Sliding Cycles and Sliding Energy Density

2017-03-28
2017-01-0303
Light-weighting of vehicles is one of the challenges for transportation industry due to the increasing pressure of demands in better fuel economy and environment protection. Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are considered as prominent material of choice to realize lightweight auto body and structures at least in near term. Stamping of AHSS with conventional die materials and surface coatings, however, results in frequent die failures and undesired panel surface finish. A chromium nitride (CrN) coating with plasma nitriding case hardened layer on a die material (duplex treatment) is found to offer good wear and galling resistances. The coating failure initiates from fatigue cracking on the coating surface due to cyclic sliding frictions. In this work, cyclic inclined sliding wear test was used to imitate a stamping process for study on development of coating fatigue cracking, including crack length and spacing vs. sliding-cycles and sliding energy densities.
Journal Article

Optimized AHSS Structures for Vehicle Side Impact

2012-04-16
2012-01-0044
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization.
Technical Paper

Application of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods for GMAW Joints in Vehicle Structures and Frames

2011-04-12
2011-01-0192
In the North American automotive industry, various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are used to lighten vehicle structures, improve safety performance and fuel economy, and reduce harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) in the current generation body-in-white structures. Additionally, fatigue failures are most likely to occur at joints subjected to a variety of different loadings. It is therefore critical that automotive engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints. The Sheet Steel Fatigue Committee of the Auto/Steel Partnership (A/S-P) completed a comprehensive fatigue study on GMAW joints of both AHSS and conventional sheet steels including: DP590 GA, SAE 1008, HSLA HR 420, DP 600 HR, Boron, DQSK, TRIP 780 GI, and DP780 GI steels.
Journal Article

The Effect of Welding Dimensional Variability on the Fatigue Life of Gas Metal Arc Welded Joints

2011-04-12
2011-01-0196
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is widely employed for joining relatively thick sheet steels in automotive body-in-white structures and frames. The GMAW process is very flexible for various joint geometries and has relatively high welding speed. However, fatigue failures can occur at welded joints subjected to various types of loads. Thus, vehicle design engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints produced by GMAW. Currently, automotive structures employ various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase (DP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels to produce lighter vehicle structures with improved safety performance and fuel economy, and reduced harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using GMAW in current body-in-white structures and frames.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) Evaluation of Electro Galvanized (EG) 1.0 mm Dual Phase 780 (DP780) to Uncoated 1.0 mm Boron Steel for Automotive Body Structure Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0445
There has been a substantial increase in the use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive structures in the last few years. The usage of these materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with the introduction of new safety and fuel economy regulations. AHSS are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties and use in parts for weight savings potential, as compared to mild steels. These new materials pose significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Proper understanding of the weldability of these materials is critical for successful application on future vehicle programs. Due to the high strength nature of AHSS materials, higher weld forces and longer weld times are often needed to weld these advanced strength steels.
Technical Paper

Select Strength Steel Bumper System

1983-02-01
830397
The SS Bumper is a new concept in automobile systems that achieves a very significant weight reduction in steel bumper construction and is capable of meeting the 5 mph FMVSS U.S. Government impact standard. It offers a low cost method of achieving a double digit weight reduction with no cost premium for aluminum or plastic materials. This paper concentrates on describing the configuration of the SS Bumper and a simple, easy to apply procedure for car application which includes discrete equations for bending strengths, torsional strength and the new dent strength relationships which have been recently developed. One version of the SS Bumper applied to the 1983 Thunderbird is also described.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Impact Forces under Dynamic Crush using a Drop Tower Test Facility

1983-02-01
830467
The design of structural components requires a knowledge of their crush characteristics, particularly the load-carrying capacity during dynamic crash. Although many attempts have been made to develop analytical techniques or methods for predicting these characteristics, experimental tests are still needed to provide data for real structures for either development or validation. This report describes an experimental method for determining the force-deflection characteristics during dynamic crush of square steel columns using a drop tower test facility. The custom-designed load cells were used for the measurements of the impact and the reaction forces at both ends of specimens, which were subjected to a 30 mph impact. Instrumentation for data acquisition and detailed data reduction for analysis are also presented.
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of Sliding Chutes for Metal Stamping Production

1980-02-01
800493
Identification of the noise generating mechanisms of gravity action and vibrator stimulated sliding chutes has resulted in the development of practical and effective noise abatement treatments for both. In the case of gravity action chutes the application of foam-backed thin and narrow spring steel plates on the chute surface achieves the desired effect with noise reduction of 14 to 25 dB(A). With vibrator stimulated chutes progressive steps were taken to attenuate source noise, chute radiation noise and the non-productive component of the force vector from the vibrator, resulting in noise reduction of 25 to 30 dB(A).
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of In-Plant Trailers

1980-02-01
800494
In-plant trailers constitute a large portion of material handling system in manufacturing plants of the automotive industry. The trailers are among the most intensive noise sources, with radiated noise reaching 110 dBA (Leq). High dynamic loads are also generated on the floor and in the trailer structure. These dynamic loads lead to maintenance problems and inflated inventory of the trailers. Principal mechanisms responsible for generating noise and dynamic loads are identified and treatments to reduce noise and dynamic loads have been developed and investigated on standard trailers. Test results show: for an empty trailer, application of the proposed nonlinear suspension reduces noise 16–18 dBA (Leq) and dynamic load 10 times; for a trailer with an empty rack, application of the proposed nonlinear rack cushion leads to 3–5 dBA (Leq) noise reduction in addition to 8–10 dBA (Leq) reduction due to the suspension.
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