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Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Valve Lift on Flow Capacity of Intake Port

2019-04-02
2019-01-0223
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine intake port was established and was verified by steady-flow test. Based on this model, the influence of intake valve lift on the flow capacity of intake port was studied and a design method of maximum valve lift was put forward. The results show that, under different intake pressure and relative pressure difference conditions, the discharge coefficient increases first and then converges with the increase of valve lift. Under the same valve lift condition, with the increase of relative pressure difference, the discharge coefficient decreases slightly in subsonic state and decreases sharply from subsonic state to supersonic state, but the mass flow rate increases slightly. The optimum ratio of valve lift and valve seat diameter is related to relative pressure difference, it increases first and then keeps constant with the increase of relative pressure difference.
Technical Paper

Influence of Key Section Parameters of Exhaust Port on Flow Capacity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0200
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine exhaust port was established. The reliability of modeling method and the exhaust port model were verified by the steady-flow test, PIV test and pressure field test. Based on the exhaust port model, the influence of the key section parameters such as inlet area S1, throat area S2, and outlet area S3 on the flow capacity of the exhaust port was studied. The results show that, under different pressure difference and exhaust back pressure conditions, the mass flow rate increases first and then converges with the increase of the area ratio of outlet and inlet or the area ratio of throat and inlet. With the increase of the relative pressure difference, the optimal area ratio of outlet and inlet decreases and converges to 1.02, but the optimal area ratio of throat and inlet increases and converges to 1.13.
Technical Paper

A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

2019-04-02
2019-01-0432
The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

2019-04-02
2019-01-0578
There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Response Decoupling Method in Mount Design with Emphasis on Transient Load Conditions

2019-01-18
2018-01-5046
This research examined the focused design, elastic design, energy decoupling, and torque roll axis (TRA) decoupling methods for mount optimization design. Requiring some assumptions, these methods are invalid for some load conditions and constraints. The linearity assumption is advantageous and simplifies both design and optimization analysis, facilitating engineering applications. However, the linearity is rarely seen in real-world applications, and there is no practical method to directly measure the reaction forces in the three locally orthogonal directions, preventing validation of existing methods by experimental results. For nonlinear system identification, there are additional challenges such as unobservable internal variables and the uncertainty of measured data.
Technical Paper

Road Classification Based on System Response with Consideration of Tire Enveloping

2018-04-03
2018-01-0550
This paper presents a road classifier based on the system response with consideration of the tire enveloping. The aim is to provide an easily applicable yet accurate road classification approach for automotive engineers. For this purpose, tire enveloping effect is firstly modeled based on the flexible roller contact (FRC) theory, then transfer functions between road input and commonly used suspension responses i.e. the sprung mass acceleration, unsprung mass acceleration, and rattle space, are calculated for a quarter vehicle model. The influence of parameter variations, vehicle velocity, and measurement noise on transfer functions are comprehensively analyzed to derive the most suitable system response thereafter. In addition, this paper proposes a vehicle speed correction mechanism to further improve the classification accuracy under complex driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Control Research of Nonlinear Vehicle Suspension System Based on Road Estimation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0553
The control parameter of the semi-active suspension system varies with road profile; therefore, in this study a new algorithm based on cuckoo search (CS) optimization method and road estimation was proposed to investigate the characteristics of the nonlinear parameters and at the same time improve the riding comfort. Based on this, a seven degree of freedom full vehicle model was developed with nonlinear damper and spring. The sprung mass acceleration, pitch acceleration, and tire deflection could be selected as the objective functions, and the control current of semi active suspension was selected as optimization variable. A multi-object CS algorithm was utilized to obtain the optimal parameters under different road profiles, and a road estimation algorithm was used to identify the road level. Then the control parameters could be adjusted adaptively according to the level of the road.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Observer for Nonlinear Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Coupled Lateral and Vertical Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0559
The study of vehicle state estimation performance especially on the aspect of observer-based control for improving vehicle ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since vehicle roll behavior with various road excitations act an important part of driving safety, how to accurately obtain vehicle state under various driving scenes are of great concern. However, previous researches seldom consider coupling relation between vehicle vertical and lateral response with steering input under various road excitation. To address this issue, comprehension analyses on vehicle roll state estimation with coupled input are present in this paper. A full-car nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is first created to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling dynamics.
Technical Paper

Soot and PAH Formation Characteristics of Methanol-Gasoline Belnds in Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames

2018-04-03
2018-01-0357
Particulate matter emissions are becoming a big issue for GDI engines as the emission regulations being more stringent. Methanol has been considered to be an important alternative fuel to reduce soot emissions. To understand the effect of methanol addition on soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation, the 2-D distributions of soot volume fraction and different size PAHs relative concentrations in methanol/gasoline laminar diffusion flames were measured by TC-LII and PLIF techniques. The effect of methanol was investigated under the conditions of the same carbon flow and the same flame height. The methanol volume fraction was set as M0/20/40/60/80. The results showed that the natural luminescent flame lift-off height and soot lift-off height increases consistently with the increasing methanol content due to the increase of outlet velocity of fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Temperature on the Ignition Initiation Location of a Pre-Chamber Generated Hot Turbulent Jet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0184
Ignition location is one of the important factors that affect the thermal efficiency, exhaust emissions and knock sensitivity in premixed-charge ignition engines. However, the ignition initiation locations of pre-chamber generated turbulent jet ignition, which is a promising ignition enhancement method, are not clearly understood due to the complex physics behind it. Motivated by this, the ignition initiation location of a transient turbulent jet in a constant volume combustor is analyzed by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the CFD simulations of this work, commercial codes KIVA-3 V release 2 and an in-house-developed chemical solver with a detailed mechanism for H2/air mixtures are used. Comparisons are performed between simulated and experimental ignition initiation locations, and they agree well with one another. A detailed parametric study of the influence of in-cylinder temperature on the ignition initiation location is also performed.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Journal Article

Design and Position Control of a Novel Electric Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0812
The electric vehicles and the intelligent vehicles put forward to new requirements for the brake system, such as the vacuum-independent braking, automatic or active braking, and regenerative braking, which are the key link for the vehicle’s safety and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this article, a novel integrated power-assisted actuator of brake system is proposed to satisfy the brake system requirements of the electric vehicles and intelligent vehicles. The electronic brake booster system is designed to achieve the function of boosting pedal force of driver, being independent on vacuum source, supplying autonomous or active braking. It is mainly composed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, and a reaction disk. The scheme design and power-assisted braking control are the key for the electronic actuator.
Technical Paper

Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Lubrication System Performance Degradation Faults based on PSO-SVM

2017-10-08
2017-01-2430
Considering the randomness and instability of the oil pressure in the lubrication system, a new approach for fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine lubrication system based on support vector machine optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO-SVM) model and centroid location algorithm has been proposed. Firstly, PSO algorithm is chosen to determine the optimum parameters of SVM, to avoid the blindness of choosing parameters. It can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. The results show that the classify accuracy of PSO-SVM is improved compared with SVM in which parameters are set according to experience. Then, the support vector machine classification interface is fitted to a curve, and the boundary conditions of fault diagnosis are obtained. Finally, diagnose algorithm is achieved through analyzing the centroid movement of features. According to Performance degradation data, degenerate trajectory model is established based on centroid location.
Technical Paper

On-Line Model Recursive Identification for Variable Parameters of Driveline Vibration

2017-10-08
2017-01-2428
The vehicle driveline suffers low frequency torsional vibration due to the abrupt change of input torque and torque fluctuation under variable frequency. This problem can be solved by model based control, so building a control oriented driveline model is extremely important. In this paper, an on-line recursive identification method is proposed for control oriented model and validated based on an electric car. First of all, the control oriented driveline model is simplified into a six-parameter model with double inertia. Secondly, based on stability analysis, motor torque and motor speed are chosen as input signal for on-line model identification. A recursive identification algorithm is designed and implemented based on Simulink. Meanwhile a detail model of the vehicle which considering driveline parameter variation is built based on ADAMS. Thirdly, on-line identification is conducted by using co-simulation of ADAMS and Simulink.
Technical Paper

A Cylinder Pressure Correction Method Based on Calculated Polytropic Exponent

2017-10-08
2017-01-2252
The acquisition of more authentic cylinder pressure data is the basis of engine combustion analysis. Due to the multiple advantages, quartz piezoelectric pressure transducers are generally applied to the measurement of the cylinder pressure. However, these transducers can only produce dynamic cylinder pressure data which may be significantly different from the actual values. Thus, the cylinder pressure data need to be corrected through a certain method, while different cylinder pressure correction methods will cause result divergences of the combustion analysis. This paper aims to acquire a proper cylinder pressure correction method by carrying out theoretical analysis based on the polytropic process in the compression stroke as well as the experimental research of the cylinder pressure of a turbocharged eight-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Effects of Intake Parameters on Diesel LTC Combustion and Emission

2017-10-08
2017-01-2259
The diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) can keep high efficiency and produce low emission. Which has been widely studied at home and abroad in recent years. The combustion control parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure, intake temperature and so on, have an important influence on the combustion and emission of diesel LTC. Therefore, to realize different combustion modes and combustion mode switch of diesel engine, it is necessary to accurately control the injection parameters and intake parameters of diesel engine. In this work, experimental study has been carried out to analyze the effect of intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure and intake temperature in combustion and emission characteristics of diesel LTC, such as in-cylinder pressure, temperature, heat release rate, NOx and soot emission.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Volume Ratio on the Combustion Characteristics of CNG-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2270
CNG-diesel dual fuel combustion mode has been regarded as a practical operation strategy because it not only can remain high thermal efficiency but also make full use of an alternative fuel, natural gas. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions under cold start and low load conditions. As known, hydrogen has high flammability. Thus, a certain proportion of hydrogen can be added in the natural gas (named HCNG) to improve combustion performance. In this work, the effect of hydrogen volume ratio on combustion characteristics was investigated on an optically accessible single-cylinder CNG-diesel engine using a Phantom v7.3 color camera. HCNG was compressed into the tank under different hydrogen volume ratios varied from 0% to 30%, while the energy substitution rate of` HCNG remained at 70%.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Fraction on Laminar Flame Characteristics of Methanol-Hydrogen-Air Mixture at Atmospheric Pressure

2017-10-08
2017-01-2277
Methanol has been regarded as a potential transportation fuel due to its advanced combustion characteristics and flexible source. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions problems under cold start and low load conditions either on methanol SI engine or on methanol/diesel dual fuel engine. Hydrogen is a potential addition that can enhance the combustion of methanol due to its high flammability and combustion stability. In the current work, the effect of hydrogen fraction on the laminar flame characteristics of methanol- hydrogen-air mixture under varied equivalence ratio was investigated on a constant volume combustion chamber system coupled with a schlieren setup. Experiments were performed over a wide range of equivalence ratio of the premixed charge, varied from 0.8 to 1.4, as well as different hydrogen fraction, 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (n/n). All tests were carried out at fixed temperature and pressure of 400K and 0.1MPa.
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