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Technical Paper

The Application of Solid Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2364
Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of Electrically Heated Catalyst on the Low Temperature Performance of Vanadium-Based SCR Catalyst on Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1527
The NOx conversion efficiency of vanadium-based SCR catalyst is lower under low temperature. Utilizing an exhaust analyzer, the effects of electrically heated catalyst on the performance of vanadium-based SCR catalyst under low temperature was studied on the engine test bench. The inlet temperature of SCR catalyst without the electrically heated catalyst were in the range of 150°C∼270°C under various steady engine modes, and the NSR (Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio) was set as 0.4,0.6,0.8,1.0. The results showed that under the space velocity of 20000h−1, with the application of the electrically heated catalyst, the inlet temperature of SCR increased about 19.9°C on average and the NOx conversion efficiency improved about 8.0%. The NOx conversion efficiency increased 1.7%∼8.6% at the temperatures of 150°C∼174°C, and 1.0%∼15.9% at the temperatures of 186°C∼270°C.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0513
Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. Using an accelerated aging procedure, a set of production exhaust systems from a 2011 Ford F250 equipped with a 6.7L diesel engine have been aged to an equivalent of 150,000 miles of thermal aging and metal exposure. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ULSD containing no measureable metals, B20 containing sodium, B20 containing potassium and B20 containing calcium. Metals levels were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to the ASTM D6751 standard. Analysis of the aged catalysts included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing with the systems installed on a Ford F250 pickup, bench flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).
Technical Paper

Advanced Urea SCR System Study with a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0371
U.S. federal vehicle emission standards effective in 2007 require tight control of NOx and hydrocarbon emissions. For light-duty vehicles, the current standard of Tier 2 Bin 5 is about 0.07 g/mi NOx and 0.09 g/mi NMOG (non-methane organic gases) at 120,000 mi. However, the proposed future standard is 0.03 g/mi for NMOG + NOx (~SULEV30) at 150,000 mi. There is a significant improvement needed in catalyst system efficiencies for diesel vehicles to achieve the future standard, mainly during cold start. In this study, a less than 6000 lbs diesel truck equipped with an advanced urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system was used to pursue lower tailpipe emissions with an emphasis on vehicle calibration and catalyst package. The calibration was tuned by optimizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) fuel injection and cold start strategy to generate desirable engine-out emissions balanced with reasonable temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Removing PM and NOX Simultaneously from Diesel Exhaust

2008-06-23
2008-01-1793
In order to achieve simultaneous removal of particulate matters (PM) and NOX in diesel exhaust, a new kind of aftertreatment prototype has been developed. The prototype combined effects of static, cyclone, non-thermal plasma and hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction. Experiments have been carried out with standard gases simulating diesel exhaust. Physical and chemical effects that took place in the prototype are as follows: the collection of PM by electrostatic-cyclone system, the oxidative combustion of PM, the selective catalytic reduction of NOX, and the reaction between PM and NOX. The effect of non-thermal plasma makes the density of NO decrease and that of NO2 increase, whereas, the amount of NOX remains the same. Employing catalyst coupled with non-thermal plasma debase the temperature by about 50◻, there the peak value of transform rate appears.
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