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Technical Paper

Research on Opposed Piston Two-Stroke Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Thermodynamic Simulation

2017-10-08
2017-01-2408
The Opposed Piston Two-Stroke (OPTS) engine has many advantages on power density, fuel tolerance, fuel flexibility and package space. A type of self-balanced opposed-piston folded-crank train two-stroke engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was studied in this paper. AVL BOOST was used for the thermodynamic simulation. It was a quasi-steady, filling-and-emptying flow analysis -- no intake or exhaust dynamics were simulated. The results were validated against experimental data. The effects of high altitude environment on engine performance have been investigated. Moreover, the matching between the engine and turbocharger was designed and optimized for different altitude levels. The results indicated that, while the altitude is above 6000m, a multi-stage turbocharged engine system need to be considered and optimized for the UAV.
Technical Paper

Study on Nonlinear Rotordynamics Characteristics for Electric Compound Turbocharger

2017-10-08
2017-01-2418
The electric compound turbocharger(ECT) which integrates a high speed motor into a turbocharger rotor shaft can be used transiently to accelerate the turbocharger more quickly in response to an acceleration requirement. It can utilize the exhaust gas energy fully to improve the engine fuel efficiency and benefit for engine with lower emissions. The key technique of ECT is to solve the reliability problems when an electrical motor is integrated into a turbocharger shaft between the turbine and compressor wheels will increase the burden for the bearing support and affect the turbocharger shaft rotation characteristics. In order to know the dynamics behavior of higher load bearing system is explored for reliability, this paper focus on the nonlinear rotor dynamics characteristics of ECT rotor bearing system.
Technical Paper

A General Selection Method for the Compressor of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine with Turbocharger

2017-03-28
2017-01-1025
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier because it is characterized by a fast combustion velocity, a wide range of sources, and clean combustion products. A hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) with a turbocharger has been used to solve the contradiction of power density and control NOx. However, the selection of a H2ICE compressor with a turbocharger is very different from traditional engines because of gas fuel. Hydrogen as a gas fuel has the same volume as its cylinder and thus increases pressure and reduces the mass flow rate of air in cylinder for a port fuel injection-H2ICE (PFI-H2ICE). In this study, a general method involving a H2ICE with a turbocharger is proposed by considering the effect of hydrogen on cylinders. Using this method, we can calculate the turbocharged pressure ratio and mass flow rate of air based on the target power and general parameters. This method also provides a series of intake temperatures of air before calculation to improve accuracy.
Technical Paper

Study on the Interaction of Clearance Flow and Shock Wave in a Turbine Nozzle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1039
Radial flow Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) enables better matching between the turbocharger and engine. At partial loading or low-end engine operating points, the nozzle vane opening of the VNT is decreased to achieve higher turbine efficiency and transient response, which is a benefit for engine fuel consumption and emission. However, under certain small nozzle opening conditions (such as nozzle brake and low-end operating points), strong shock waves and strong nozzle clearance flow are generated. Consequently, strong rotor-stator interaction between turbine nozzle and impeller is the key factor of the impeller high cycle fatigue and failure. In present paper, flow visualization experiment is carried out on a linear turbine nozzle. The turbine nozzle is designed to have single-sided clearance, and the Schlieren visualization method is used to describe the formation and development process of clearance flow and shock wave under different clearance and expansion ratio configurations.
Technical Paper

A Test Bench for the Turbocharger Fatigue Life Based on the Self-Circulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0429
The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response

2013-04-08
2013-01-0918
Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Facility to Characterize Performance, Surge, and Acoustics in Turbochargers

2011-05-17
2011-01-1644
A cold turbocharger test facility was designed and developed at The Ohio State University to measure the performance characteristics under steady state operating conditions, investigate unsteady surge, and acquire acoustic data. A specific turbocharger is used for a thermodynamic analysis to determine the capabilities and limitations of the facility, as well as for the design and construction of the screw compressor, flow control, oil, and compression systems. Two different compression system geometries were incorporated. One system allows compressor performance measurements left of the surge line, while the other incorporates a variable-volume plenum. At the full plenum volume and a specific impeller tip speed, the temporal variation of the compressor inlet and outlet and the plenum pressures as well as the turbocharger speed is presented for stable, mild surge, and deep surge operating points.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Impact of Self Recirculation Casing Treatment on Turbocharger Compressor

2010-04-12
2010-01-1224
Self recirculation casing treatment has been showed to be an effective technique to extend the flow range of the compressor. However, the mechanism of its surge extension on turbocharger compressor is less understood. Investigation and comparison of internal flow filed will help to understand its impact on the compressor performance. In present study, experimentally validated CFD analysis was employed to study the mechanism of surge extension on the turbocharger compressor. Firstly a turbocharger compressor with replaceable inserts near the shroud of the impeller inlet was designed so that the overall performance of the compressor with and without self recirculation casing treatment could be tested and compared. Two different self recirculation casing treatments had been tested: one is conventional self recirculation casing treatment and the other one has deswirl vanes inside the casing treatment passage.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Journal Article

Numerical Optimization on a Centrifugal Turbocharger Compressor

2008-06-23
2008-01-1697
Performances of a centrifugal turbocharger compressor are investigated and validated in this paper. Based on the validation results, numerical optimizations are performed using ANN and CFD methods. Different impeller geometry with free parameters controlling stacking laws, end-wall, blade sectional camber curves and corresponding performances are used as input layer of ANN in the optimization, while adiabatic total-to-total efficiency and total pressure ratio are used as output layer of the optimization cycle. With this method, the performances of the compressor investigated in this paper are improved notably.
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