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Technical Paper

Experimental Study of B20 Combustion and Emission Characteristics under Several EGR Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1078
It is found that biodiesel has a great potential to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions simultaneously in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode. The objective of this study is to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics of 20% biodiesel blend diesel fuel (B20) under several exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions for LTC application. An experimental investigation of B20 was conducted on a four-stroke common rail direct injection diesel engine at 2000rpm and 25% load condition. The EGR ratio was adjusted from 10% to 66%, and the injection pressure was tuned from 100MPa to 140MPa. The result showed that B20 generated less soot emission than conventional diesel with increasing EGR ratio, especially when the EGR ratio was beyond 30%. Soot emission increased with increasing EGR ratio up to 50% EGR, after which there is a steep decrease in particular matter (PM).
Technical Paper

A Study of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine EGR System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1071
NOx are the only harmful emissions of hydrogen internal combustion engine. EGR is one of the effective methods to reduce NOx. The traditional EGR is not suitable for hydrogen internal combustion engine. Therefore, the study of influence of hot EGR on hydrogen internal combustion engine is important. A 2.0L hydrogen internal combustion engine with hot EGR system model is employed to optimize the diameter and position of hot EGR based on a simulation analysis. The result shows that both of the combustion temperature and NOx increase as EGR increases due to the rise of intake temperature for low load condition, for heavy load, with the increase of EGR rate, NOx emissions decreases slightly before the mixture equivalence ratio comes to 1and then dropped significantly after the mixture equivalence ratio greater than 1. Unburned hydrogen in TWC has the effect of reducing NOx after catalysts decrease largely.
Journal Article

On Stochastic Model Interpolation and Extrapolation Methods for Vehicle Design

2013-04-08
2013-01-1386
Finite Element (FE) models are widely used in automotive for vehicle design. Even with increasing speed of computers, the simulation of high fidelity FE models is still too time-consuming to perform direct design optimization. As a result, response surface models (RSMs) are commonly used as surrogates of the FE models to reduce the turn-around time. However, RSM may introduce additional sources of uncertainty, such as model bias, and so on. The uncertainty and model bias will affect the trustworthiness of design decisions in design processes. This calls for the development of stochastic model interpolation and extrapolation methods that can address the discrepancy between the RSM and the FE results, and provide prediction intervals of model responses under uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Renewable Ethanol Use for Enabling High Load Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0904
As a renewable energy source, the ethanol fuel was employed with a diesel fuel in this study to improve the cylinder charge homogeneity for high load operations, targeting on ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions. A light-duty diesel engine is configured to adapt intake port fuelling of the ethanol fuel while keeping all other original engine components intact. High load experiments are performed to investigate the combustion control and low emission enabling without sacrificing the high compression ratio (18.2:1). The intake boost, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure are independently controlled, and thus their effects on combustion and emission characteristics of the high load operation are investigated individually. The low temperature combustion is accomplished at high engine load (16~17 bar IMEP) with regulation compatible NOx and soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ignition Energy Phasing and Spark Gap on Combustion in a Homogenous Direct Injection Gasoline SI Engine Near the EGR Limit

2013-04-08
2013-01-1630
For spark-ignition gasoline engines operating under the wide speed and load conditions required for light duty vehicles, ignition quality limits the ability to minimize fuel consumption and NOx emissions via dilution under light and part load conditions. In addition, during transients including tip-outs, high levels of dilution can occur for multiple combustion events before either the external exhaust gas can be adjusted and cleared from the intake or cam phasing can be adjusted for correct internal dilution. Further improvement and a thorough understanding of the impact of the ignition system on combustion near the dilution limit will enable reduced fuel consumption and robust transient operation. To determine and isolate the effects of multiple parameters, a variable output ignition system (VOIS) was developed and tested on a 3.5L turbocharged V6 homogeneous charge direct-injection gasoline engine with two spark plug gaps and three ignition settings.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Test Setup for Investigation of Water-Deposit Interaction in a Surrogate Rectangular Cooler Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Flow

2012-04-16
2012-01-0364
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOx emissions. The presence of a cool surface in the hot exhaust causes particulate soot deposition as well as hydrocarbon and water condensation. Fouling experienced through deposition of particulate matter and hydrocarbons results in degraded cooler effectiveness and increased pressure drop. In this study, a visualization test setup is designed and constructed so that the effect of water condensation on the deposit formation and growth at various coolant temperatures can be studied. A water-cooled surrogate rectangular channel is employed to represent the EGR cooler. One side of the channel is made of glass for visualization purposes. A medium duty diesel engine is used to generate the exhaust stream.
Technical Paper

Advanced Urea SCR System Study with a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0371
U.S. federal vehicle emission standards effective in 2007 require tight control of NOx and hydrocarbon emissions. For light-duty vehicles, the current standard of Tier 2 Bin 5 is about 0.07 g/mi NOx and 0.09 g/mi NMOG (non-methane organic gases) at 120,000 mi. However, the proposed future standard is 0.03 g/mi for NMOG + NOx (~SULEV30) at 150,000 mi. There is a significant improvement needed in catalyst system efficiencies for diesel vehicles to achieve the future standard, mainly during cold start. In this study, a less than 6000 lbs diesel truck equipped with an advanced urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system was used to pursue lower tailpipe emissions with an emphasis on vehicle calibration and catalyst package. The calibration was tuned by optimizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) fuel injection and cold start strategy to generate desirable engine-out emissions balanced with reasonable temperatures.
Technical Paper

EGR and Swirl Distribution Analysis Using Coupled 1D-3D CFD Simulation for a Turbocharged Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-09-13
2011-01-2222
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel and code named "Scorpion" was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. A high pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) layout in combination with a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is used to deliver cooled EGR for in-cylinder NOx reduction. The cylinder-to-cylinder variation of EGR and swirl ratio is tightly controlled by the careful design of the EGR mixer and intake system flow path to reduce variability of cylinder-out PM and NOx emissions. 3D-CFD studies were used to quickly screen several EGR mixer designs based on mixing efficiency and pressure drop considerations. To optimize the intake system, 1D-3D co-simulation methodology with AVL-FIRE and AVL-BOOST has been used to assess the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR distribution and dynamic swirl.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Development of a Canning Method for Catalytic Converters using Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2004-03-08
2004-01-0144
There are benefits of using ultra thin wall (UTW) substrates (i.e., 900/2, 400/4, etc) in lowering cost and emission level. However, the more fragile mechanical characteristics of the UTW present a challenge to design and manufacture of robust catalytic converters. This paper describes a method of canning trial, where a combined Design of Experiment / Monte-Carlo analysis method was used, to develop and validate a canning method for ultra thin wall substrates. Canning trials were conducted in two stages-- Prototype Canning Trial and Production Canning Trial. In Prototype Canning Trial, the root cause of substrate failure was identified and a model for predicting substrate failure was established. Key factors affecting scrap rate and gap capability were identified and predictions were performed on scrap rate and gap capability with the allowed variations in the key factors. The results provided guidelines in designing production line and process control.
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