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Journal Article

Validation of the Localized Fire Test Method for On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0421
The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Impact Phenomenon During Minor Collision

2013-04-08
2013-01-1545
ISO 12405-1,2 specifies international testing standards for lithium-ion batteries for vehicles. In the mechanical shock test is used to determine if the battery is damaged due to the shock imposed when the vehicle runs over a curb or similar minor accidents. Therefore, we conducted minor collision tests against a curb using an actual vehicle and compared the test results with the conditions specified in ISO 12405-1,2. The results confirmed that the impulse wave obtained using an actual vehicle within the range of the test in this study differs from the shape of the impulse wave specified in ISO 12405-1,2.
Technical Paper

Validity of Low Ventilation for Accident Processing with Hydrogen Leakage from Hydrogen-Fuelled Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0211
Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.
Journal Article

Development and Characteristics of a Burner for Localized Fire Tests and an Evaluation of Those Fire Tests

2012-04-16
2012-01-0987
We have developed a new propane burner that satisfies the requirements of localized fire test which was presented in SAE technical paper 2011-01-0251. This paper introduces the specifications of this burner and reports its characteristics as determined from various fire exposure tests that we conducted in order to gather data. These tests included temperature and heat flux distribution on cylinder surfaces, which would be useful for the design of automotive compressed fuel cylinders. Our fire exposure tests included localized and engulfing fire tests to compare TPRD activation time, cylinder burst pressure and other parameters between different flame configurations and tests to identify the effects of an automotive compressed fuel cylinder on localized fire test results.
Journal Article

Combustion Behavior of Leaking Hydrogen and Effects of Ceiling Variations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0254
Hydrogen concentration during combustion in a confined space with a ceiling was investigated. The results indicated that steady-state hydrogen concentration was highest at the ceiling surface for all hydrogen flow rates. When hydrogen concentration was 10-20%, weak flame propagation occurred at the ceiling surface, with the most easily burnable spots being dented areas such as seams, pores and creases on the ceiling surface. The unstable and limited nature of flame propagation at the ceiling surface was attributed to the relationship between temperature and hydrogen concentration in a confined space.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Fire Response of Vehicles with Compressed Hydrogen Cylinders

2010-04-12
2010-01-0134
To investigate the events that could arise when fighting fires in vehicles with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) hydrogen storage cylinders, we conducted experiments to examine whether a hydrogen jet diffusion flame caused by activation of the pressure relief device (PRD) can be extinguished and how spraying water influences the cylinder and PRD. The experiments clarified that the hydrogen jet flame cannot be extinguished easily with water or dry powder extinguishers and that spraying water during activation of the PRD may result in closure of the PRD, but is useful for maintaining the strength of CFRP composite cylinders for vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fire Safety Evaluation of a Vehicle Equipped with Hydrogen Fuel Cylinders: Comparison with Gasoline and CNG Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-0129
In this study, we evaluated the fire safety of vehicles that use compressed hydrogen as fuel. We conducted fire tests on vehicles that used compressed hydrogen and on vehicles that used compressed natural gas and gasoline and compared temperatures around the vehicle and cylinder, internal pressure of the cylinder, irradiant heat around the vehicle, sound pressure levels when the pressure relief device (PRD) was activated, and damage to the vehicle and surrounding flammable objects. The results revealed that vehicles equipped with compressed hydrogen gas cylinders are not more dangerous than CNC or gasoline vehicles, even in the event of a vehicle fire.
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