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Technical Paper

Fluid-Solid Coupled Heat Transfer Investigation of Wet Clutches

The prediction of temperature distribution and variation of oil-cooled sliding disk pair is essential for the design of wet clutches and brakes in a vehicle transmission system. A two-phase coupled heat transfer model is established in the study and some fluid-solid coupled heat transfer simulations are performed to investigate the thermal behaviors of wet clutch during sliding by CFD method. Both cooling liquid and grooved solid disks are contained in the heat transfer model and the heat convection due to the cooling liquid in the radial grooves is also considered by fluid-solid coupled transient heat transfer simulations. The temperature distribution and variation of the grooved disk are discussed and analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the temperature distribution on the grooved disk is nonuniform. The temperature within the middle radius area is higher than that in the inner and outer radius area.
Technical Paper

Research on Temperature Stability of an Independent Energy Supply Device with Organic Rankine Cycles Based on Hydraulic Retarder

Hydraulic retarder, as an auxiliary braking device, is widely used in commercial vehicles. Nowadays, the hydraulic retarder’s internal oil is mainly cooled by the coolant circuit directly. It not only aggravates the load of engine cooling system, but also makes the abundant heat energy not be recycled properly. In this study, an independent energy supply device with organic Rankine cycles is applied to solve the problems above. In the structure of this energy supply device, the evaporator’s inlet and outlet is connected in parallel with the oil outlet and inlet of the retarder respectively. A part of oil enters the evaporator to transfer heat with the organic fluid, and the rest of oil enters the oil-water heat exchanger to be cooled by the coolant circuit. According to the different braking conditions of the retarder, the oil temperature in the inlet of the hydraulic retarder can be kept within the proper range through adjusting the oil flow rate into the evaporator properly.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control for Engine Powertrain Thermal Management Applications

Numerous studies describe the fuel consumption benefits of changing the powertrain temperature based on vehicle operating conditions. Actuators such as electric water pumps and active thermostats now provide more flexibility to change powertrain operating temperature than traditional mechanical-only systems did. Various control strategies have been proposed for powertrain temperature set-point regulation. A characteristic of powertrain thermal management systems is that the operating conditions (speed, load etc) change continuously to meet the driver demand and in most cases, the optimal conditions lie on the edge of the constraint envelope. Control strategies for set-point regulation which rely purely on feedback for disturbance rejection, without knowledge of future disturbances, might not provide the full fuel consumption benefits due to the slow thermal inertia of the system.
Journal Article

Investigating the Potential to Reduce Crankshaft Main Bearing Friction During Engine Warm-up by Raising Oil Feed Temperature

Reducing friction in crankshaft bearings during cold engine operation by heating the oil supply to the main gallery has been investigated through experimental investigations and computational modelling. The experimental work was undertaken on a 2.4l DI diesel engine set up with an external heat source to supply hot oil to the gallery. The aim was to raise the film temperature in the main bearings early in the warm up, producing a reduction in oil viscosity and through this, a reduction in friction losses. The effectiveness of this approach depends on the management of heat losses from the oil. Heat transfer along the oil pathway to the bearings, and within the bearings to the journals and shells, reduces the benefit of the upstream heating.
Technical Paper

Whole-Body Response to Pure Lateral Impact

The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
Technical Paper

Climate control system improvements for better cabin environmental conditions and reduction of fuel consumption

Since the beginning the world automotive industry looks for new technologies to improve the passengers' life inside vehicles, to optimize the consumption of fuel and to minimize the emission of pollutant. In the present study improvements in the vehicle acclimatization system for better cabin environmental conditions and reduction of fuel consumption were accomplished. The study included improvements in the air chamber and in the refrigeration cycle and was accomplished in a off-road vehicle model, with a bi-fuel engine of 1600 cm3, endowed with an acclimatization system with capacity of 1 TR (usual in this type of automobile). The tests of the acclimatization system performance were executed initially with the conventional system of air conditioning, without any modification (reference system). Along the development of the work modifications were introduced for the determination of the impact of these modifications in the system performance.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Passenger Compartment Strength in Car-to-Car Frontal Crashes

The strength of the passenger compartment is crucial for occupant safety in severe car-to-car frontal offset collisions. Car-to-car crash tests including minicars were carried out, and a low end of crash force was observed in a final stage of impact for cars with large intrusion into the passenger compartment. From overload tests, the strength could be evaluated from collapsing the passenger compartment. Based on the test, the end of crash force as well as the maximum forces might be important criteria to determine the passenger compartment strength, which in turn could predict the large intrusion into the passenger compartment in car-to-car crashes. A 64 km/h ODB test was insufficient to evaluate the potential strength of the passenger compartment because the maximum forces could not be determined in this test.
Technical Paper

Test procedures to evaluate vehicle compatibility

Test procedures for evaluating vehicle compatibility were investigated based on accident analysis and crash tests. This paper summarizes the research reported by Japan to the IHRA Compatibility Working Group. Passenger cars account for the largest share of injuries in head-on collisions in Japan and were identified as the first target for tackling vehicle compatibility in Japan. To ascertain situations in collisions between vehicles of different sizes, we conducted crash tests between minicars and large cars, and between small cars and large cars. The deformation and acceleration of the minicar and small car is greater than that of large car. ODB, Overload and MDB tests were performed as procedures for evaluating vehicle compatibility. In overload tests, methods to evaluate the strength of the passenger compartment were examined, and it is found that this test procedure is suitable for evaluating the strength of passenger compartments.
Technical Paper

Some Factors in the Subjective Evaluation of Laboratory Simulated Ride

Effects of DOF and subjective method on evaluations of ride quality on the Ford Vehicle Vibration Simulator were studied. Seat track vibrations from 6 vehicles were reproduced on the 6 DOF seat shaker in a DOE with pitch and roll as factors. These appeared in two evaluations of ride/shake; semantic scaling by 30 subjects of 6 vehicles, and paired comparisons by 16 of the subjects on 3 of the vehicles. Both methods found significant vehicle, pitch and roll effects. Order dependence was shown for semantic scaling. The less susceptible paired comparison method gave a different ordering, and is thus preferred.
Technical Paper

JamaS Study on the Location of In-Vehicle Displays

JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc.)'s guideline for car navigation systems is being decided on displayed the amount of information while driving. The position of a display and the estimated equation, which could be applied from a passenger car to a heavy truck, was studied. The evaluation index was the distance which drivers could become aware of a preceding vehicle by their peripheral vision, because car accidents while drivers glance at an in- vehicle display are almost the rear end collisions. As the results, the lower limit of a position of an in-vehicle display for a passenger car was 30 degrees, and a heavy truck was 46 degrees.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Occupant Motion and Seat Characteristics in Low-Speed Rear Impacts

Sled tests were conducted with some seats which had different characteristics to understand the relationships between occupant motion and seat characteristics in lowspeed rear impacts. The position of the head restraint and the stiffness distribution of the seatback were selected as parameters expressing seat characteristics. Volunteer’s cervical vertebral motions were photographed with an x-ray cineradiographic system at a speed of 90 frames/sec as well as the visible motions of dummy’s and volunteer’s were recorded. The results indicated the head restraint position and upper seatback stiffness influenced occupant motions. Correlations between visible motions, such as ramping-up, retraction and extension, were also analyzed and some correlations were found.
Technical Paper

Ford “S” Frame

Since statistics indicate that front impact is the major accident type, Ford has been studying energy-absorbing structures for some time. Early designs such as the “ball and tube” and “rail splitter” were discarded in favor of the “S” frame. Details of the design approach and testing are given in this paper. Design objectives were increased effective collapse distance, compatibility with production practices, and maintenance of satisfactory noise, vibration, and harshness levels. Safety objectives are improved passenger compartment integrity and reduction of seat belt loads. Barrier crash tests at 30 mph (equivalent to collision into standing vehicle at 50 mph) were used to evaluate the design of the “S” frame. Results of testing indicate that occupant restraint with seat belts, combined with front end structural improvements, offer the most promise for injury reduction during service front impact accidents.