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Journal Article

Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera.
Technical Paper

Fluid-Solid Coupled Heat Transfer Investigation of Wet Clutches

The prediction of temperature distribution and variation of oil-cooled sliding disk pair is essential for the design of wet clutches and brakes in a vehicle transmission system. A two-phase coupled heat transfer model is established in the study and some fluid-solid coupled heat transfer simulations are performed to investigate the thermal behaviors of wet clutch during sliding by CFD method. Both cooling liquid and grooved solid disks are contained in the heat transfer model and the heat convection due to the cooling liquid in the radial grooves is also considered by fluid-solid coupled transient heat transfer simulations. The temperature distribution and variation of the grooved disk are discussed and analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the temperature distribution on the grooved disk is nonuniform. The temperature within the middle radius area is higher than that in the inner and outer radius area.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Filtration Model for the Power-shift Steering Transmission

Within the hydraulic shifting circuit of power-shift steering transmission, the performance of filter is generally characterized by the theoretical filtration ratio. However in practical work, the actual filtration ratio is far less than the theoretical ratio. On the basis of investigation on the structural characteristics, the oil flowing distribution and the filter mechanisms, the re-filtering rate ω and recontaminative rate θ are defined to simulate the actual filtering process. Therefore, the dynamic filtration ratio is modelled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to investigate that how the filtering rate ω and θ influence the dynamic filtration ratio and the deviation between the dynamic ratio and theoretical ratio. Afterwards, the variation of dynamic filtration ratio is tested through a filtration experiment under the circumstances of various flow rate, temperature and pressure.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Long Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Long fiber reinforced plastics (LFRP) have exhibited superior mechanical performance and outstanding design flexibility, bringing them with increasing popularity in the automotive structural design. Due to the injection molding process, the distribution of long fibers varies at different locations throughout the part, resulting in anisotropic and non-uniform mechanical properties of the final LFRP parts. Images from X-ray CT scan of the materials show that local volume fraction of the long fibers tends to be higher at core than at skin layer. Also fibers are bundled and tangled to form clusters. Most of the current micromechanical material models used for LFRP are extended from those for short fibers without adequate validation. The effect of the complexity of long fibers on the material properties is not appropriately considered. Thus, modeling of these materials is lagging behind the material manufacturing and design development, which in turn limits their further development.
Technical Paper

Basic Characteristics of Motorcycle Riding Maneuvers of Expert Riders and Ordinary Riders

ISO26262 was intended only for passenger cars but can be applied to motorcycles if the Controllability (C) is subjectively evaluated by expert riders. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of both expert and ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders. The riding maneuvers and vehicle behavior of four expert riders and 16 ordinary riders were compared using the results of a test assuming normal running.
Technical Paper

A Transportable Instrumentation Package for In-Vehicle On-Road Data Collection for Driver Research

We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours.
Journal Article

An Assessment of the Rare Earth Element Content of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

Rare earths are a group of elements whose availability has been of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions and environmentally unsustainable mining practices. To evaluate the risks of rare earths availability to automakers, a first step is to determine raw material content and value in vehicles. This task is challenging because rare earth elements are used in small quantities, in a large number of components, and by suppliers far upstream in the supply chain. For this work, data on rare earth content reported by vehicle parts suppliers was assessed to estimate the rare earth usage of a typical conventional gasoline engine midsize sedan and a full hybrid sedan. Parts were selected from a large set of reported parts to build a hypothetical typical mid-size sedan. Estimates of rare earth content for vehicles with alternative powertrain and battery technologies were made based on the available parts' data.
Journal Article

Development and Characteristics of a Burner for Localized Fire Tests and an Evaluation of Those Fire Tests

We have developed a new propane burner that satisfies the requirements of localized fire test which was presented in SAE technical paper 2011-01-0251. This paper introduces the specifications of this burner and reports its characteristics as determined from various fire exposure tests that we conducted in order to gather data. These tests included temperature and heat flux distribution on cylinder surfaces, which would be useful for the design of automotive compressed fuel cylinders. Our fire exposure tests included localized and engulfing fire tests to compare TPRD activation time, cylinder burst pressure and other parameters between different flame configurations and tests to identify the effects of an automotive compressed fuel cylinder on localized fire test results.
Technical Paper

ACOUSTOMIZE™ A Method to Evaluate Cavity Fillers NVH & Sealing Performance

ACOUSTOMIZE™ is a new method of acoustic evaluation used for the purpose of understanding and optimizing NVH performance of vehicles. The following paper documents a case study of the ACOUSTOMIZE™ test methodology on a passenger car BIW. This study includes an analysis of noise flow through BIW locations, a comparison of noise sound levels through BIW cavities with and without a sound treatment package and a comparison of the original cavity sealing design package consisting of baffles, tapes and baggies to low density polyurethane NVH Foam. The results of the study show detection of complex BIW pass throughs that the body leakage test (BLT) was not able to find. In addition, the data shows improved noise reduction with the low density polyurethane foam versus the original cavity sealing design package.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Technical Paper

Diffusion and Ignition Behavior on the Assumption of Hydrogen Leakage from a Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle

hydrogen was leaked from the underfloor at a flow rate exceeding 131 NL/min (11.8 g/min), which is the allowable fuel leakage rate at the time of a collision of compressed hydrogen vehicles in Japan, and the resulting distribution of concentration in the engine compartment and the dispersion after stoppage of the leak were investigated. Furthermore, ignition tests were also conducted and the impact on the surroundings (mainly on human bodies) was investigated to verify the safety of the allowable leakage rate. The tests clarified that if hydrogen leaks from the underfloor at a flow rate of 1000 NL/min (89.9 g/min) and is ignited in the engine compartment, people around the vehicle will not be seriously injure. Therefore, it can be said that a flow rate of 131 NL/min (11.8 g/min), the allowable fuel leakage rate at the time of a collision of compressed hydrogen vehicles in Japan, assures a sufficient level of safety.
Technical Paper

Effect of Alcohol Fuels on Fuel-Line Materials of Gasoline Vehicles

In 1999, some Japanese fuel suppliers sold highly concentrated alcohol fuels, which are mixtures of gasoline and oxygenates, such as alcohol or ether, in amounts of 50% or more. In August 2001, it was reported that some vehicle models using the highly concentrated alcohol fuels encountered fuel leakage and vehicle fires due to corrosion of the aluminum used for the fuel-system parts. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Government of Japan (MLIT) jointly established the committee on safety for highly concentrated alcohol fuels in September 2001. The committee consisted of automotive technology and metal corrosion experts knowledgeable about preventing such accidents and ensuring user safety. Immersion tests were conducted on metals and other materials used for the fuel-supply system parts to determine the corrosion resistance to each alcohol component contained in the highly concentrated alcohol fuels.
Technical Paper

Full-Width Test and Overload Test to Evaluate Compatibility

Test procedures to assess vehicle compatibility were investigated based on a series of crash tests. Structural interaction and compartment strength are significant for compatibility, and full-width tests and overload tests have been proposed to assess these key factors. Full-width rigid and deformable barrier test results were compared with respect to force distributions, structural deformation and dummy responses. In full-width deformable tests, forces from structures can be clearly shown in barrier force distributions. The average height of force (AHOF) determined in full rigid and deformable barrier tests were similar. From car-to-car tests, it was demonstrated that stiffening the compartment of small cars is an effective and direct way to improve compatibility. To evaluate the compartment strength, five overload tests were carried out. The rebound force is proposed as a compartment strength criterion.
Technical Paper

Automotive Electrical System in the New Millennium

The automotive industry is investigating the change of electrical system voltage in a vehicle from the present 14 volt (12V battery) to 42 volt (36V battery) to integrate new electrical and electronic features. These new features require more amperes, thicker wires, large power devices, and eventually higher cost. The existing 14V system is very difficult to sustain so much content because of constraints of performance, efficiency, cost, packaging space, and manufacture-ability. This paper discusses foreseeable needs moving to a higher voltage, and reasons of 42V selection. It explores benefits and drawbacks when the voltage is changed from 14V to 42V in the areas of wire harness, power electronics, smart switching, power supply, etc. Finally, two typical 42/14V dual voltage architectures are presented for a likely 42V transition scenario.