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Technical Paper

A Test Bench for the Turbocharger Fatigue Life Based on the Self-Circulation

The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the reliability and durability of turbocharger. Low cycle fatigue test is mainly the switching between high and low speed. As the result of the experiment, the fatigue life is shorter as the difference between high and low speed becomes greater. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. This device can be self-circulating, without the large air compressor, to realize high and low speed switching on the premise of not exceeding the limitation of turbine entry temperature. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data has been used to validate the model.
Technical Paper

Life Prediction of Shift Valve for Wet Shift Clutch under Abrasive Wear

In the present paper a degradation assessment and life prediction method has been proposed for electro-hydraulic shift valve applied to control wet shift clutch in Power-shift steering transmission (PSST). Unlike traditional analysis of contaminant sensitivity, our work is motivated by the failure mechanisms of abrasive wear with a mathematic model. Plowing process included in abrasion will consecutively increase the roughness of mating surfaces and thereby enlarge the clearance space for leaking more fluid. It is an overwhelming wear mechanism in the degradation of shift valve within serious-contaminated fluid. Herein a mathematic model for assessment and prediction is proposed by considering particle morphology and abrasion theory. Such model has been verified for its applicability and accuracy through comparison between theoretical and experimental results. Assuming the proposed model to be general, valve wearing behavior in any hydraulic system can be simulated.
Journal Article

Very High Cycle Fatigue of Cast Aluminum Alloys under Variable Humidity Levels

Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Cycle on Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of a High Silicon Molybdenum Ductile Cast Iron

High silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) ductile cast iron (DCI) is commonly used for high temperature engine components, such as exhaust manifolds, which are also subjected to severe thermal cycles during vehicle operation. It is imperative to understand the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) behavior of HiSiMo DCI to accurately predict the durability of high temperature engine components. In this paper, the effect of the minimum temperature of a TMF cycle on TMF life and failure behavior is investigated. Tensile and low cycle fatigue data are first presented for temperatures up to 800°C. Next, TMF data are presented for maximum temperatures of 800°C and minimum cycle temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C. The data show that decreasing the minimum temperature has a detrimental effect on TMF life. The Smith-Watson-Topper parameter applied at the maximum temperature of the TMF cycle is found to correlate well with out-of-phase (OP) TMF life for all tested minimum temperatures.
Journal Article

Correlation between Scatter in Fatigue Life and Fatigue Crack Initiation Sites in Cast Aluminum Alloys

High cycle fatigue tests at a constant positive mean stress have been performed on a Al-Si-Cu cast aluminum alloy. The Random Fatigue Limit (RFL) model was employed to fit the probabilistic S-N curves based on Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE). Fractographic studies indicated that fatigue cracks in most specimens initiate from oxide films located at or very close to specimen surface. The RFL model was proved to be able to accurately capture the scatter in fatigue life. The cumulative density function (CDF) of fatigue life determined by RFL fit is found to be approximately equal to the complementary value of the CDF of the near-surface fatigue initiator size.
Technical Paper

Application of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods for GMAW Joints in Vehicle Structures and Frames

In the North American automotive industry, various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are used to lighten vehicle structures, improve safety performance and fuel economy, and reduce harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) in the current generation body-in-white structures. Additionally, fatigue failures are most likely to occur at joints subjected to a variety of different loadings. It is therefore critical that automotive engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints. The Sheet Steel Fatigue Committee of the Auto/Steel Partnership (A/S-P) completed a comprehensive fatigue study on GMAW joints of both AHSS and conventional sheet steels including: DP590 GA, SAE 1008, HSLA HR 420, DP 600 HR, Boron, DQSK, TRIP 780 GI, and DP780 GI steels.
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Liquefied Gas Assessment of Multi-Pressure/Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (MPT-HFRR) -DME Fuel for Diesel

In this study, a MPT-HFRR (Multi-Pressure/Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) was manufactured based on a diesel fuel lubricity test apparatus. The MPT-HFRR was designed to be used for conventional test methods as well as for liquefied gas fuel tests. Lubricity tests performed on a calibration standard sample under both atmospheric pressure and high pressure produced essentially constant values, so it was determined that this apparatus could be used for assessing the lubricity of fuel. Using this apparatus, the improvement of lubricity due to the addition of a DME (Dimethyl Ether) fuel additive was investigated. It was found that when 50ppm or more of a fatty acid lubricity improver was added, the wear scar diameter converged to 400μm or less, and a value close to the measured result for Diesel fuel was obtained. The lubricity obtained was considered to be generally satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Calculating Fractal Dimension of Worn Bearing's Vibration Signals in Automotive Transmission

This paper first discusses the principles of how to identify whether a time series has chaotic characteristics, and explores a method of finding out the embedding dimension of a time series. Then Grassberger-Procaccia (G-P) algorithm is adopted to calculate correlative dimension. After the validity of G-P algorithm is confirmed using several traditional strange attractors, it is applied to calculate the fractal dimension of some vibration signals of an automotive transmission. This article presents how to apply chaos and fractal theories to diagnose the wearing of ball bearings in automotive transmissions based on the analysis of the transmission acceleration vibration signals. The results show that the vibration signals of automotive transmissions have fractal nature. There are certain correlations between a bearing's condition and the fractal dimension of its vibration signal.