A Study of Particulate Emission Formation Mechanism from Injector Tip in Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines
The mechanism causing in-cylinder injector tip soot formation, which is the main source of particle number (PN) emissions under operating conditions after engine warm-up, was analyzed in this study. The results made clear a key parameter for reducing injector tip soot PN emissions. An evaluation of PN emissions for different amounts of injector tip wetting revealed that an injector with larger tip wetting forms higher PN emissions. The results also clarified that the amount of deposits does not have much impact on PN emissions. The key parameter for reducing injector tip soot is injector tip wetting that has a linear relationship with injector tip soot PN emissions.