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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigations of Interactions between the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex with Vehicle Interior Structures

2005-11-09
2005-22-0005
Although biomechanical studies on the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex have been extensive, interactions between the KTH and various vehicular interior design parameters in frontal automotive crashes for newer models have not been reported in the open literature to the best of our knowledge. A 3D finite element (FE) model of a 50th percentile male KTH complex, which includes explicit representations of the iliac wing, acetabulum, pubic rami, sacrum, articular cartilage, femoral head, femoral neck, femoral condyles, patella, and patella tendon, has been developed to simulate injuries such as fracture of the patella, femoral neck, acetabulum, and pubic rami of the KTH complex. Model results compared favorably against regional component test data including a three-point bending test of the femur, axial loading of the isolated knee-patella, axial loading of the KTH complex, axial loading of the femoral head, and lateral loading of the isolated pelvis.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis of the Mandible during Low-Speed, Rear-End Impacts using High-Speed X-rays

2005-11-09
2005-22-0004
There has been much debate over “whiplash”-induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction following low-speed, rear-end automobile collisions. While several authors have reported TMJ injury based on case studies post collision, there has been little biomechanical evidence showing that rear-end impact was the primary cause of such injury. The purpose of this study was to measure the relative translation between the upper and lower incisors in cadavers subjected to low-speed, rear-end impacts. High-speed x-ray images used for this analysis were reported previously for the analysis of cadaveric cervical spine kinematics during low-speed, rear-end impacts. The cadavers were positioned at various seatback angles and body postures, producing an overall picture of various seating scenarios.
Technical Paper

Brain Injury Prediction for Indy Race Car Drivers Using Finite Element Model of the Human Head

2004-11-30
2004-01-3539
The objective of this work was to evaluate a new tool for assessing brain injury. Many race car drivers have suffered concussion and other brain injuries and are in need of ways of evaluating better head protective systems and equipment. Current assessment guidelines such as HIC may not be adequate for assessing all scenarios. Finite element models of the brain have the potential to provide much better injury prediction for any scenario. At a previous Motorsports conference, results of a MADYMO model of a racing car and driver driven by 3-D accelerations recorded in actual crashes were presented. Model results from nine cases, some with concussion and some not, yielded head accelerations that were used to drive the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM). This model consists of over 310,000 elements and is capable of simulating direct and indirect impacts. It has been extensively validated using published cadaveric test data.
Technical Paper

Effect of Head-Neck Position on Cervical Facet Stretch of Post Mortem Human Subjects during Low Speed Rear End Impacts

2004-11-01
2004-22-0015
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of head-neck position on cervical facet stretch during low speed rear end impact. Twelve tests were conducted on four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in a generic bucket seat environment. Three head positions, namely Normal (neutral), Zero Clearance between the head and head restraint, and Body Forward positions were tested. A high-speed x-ray system was used to record the motion of cervical vertebrae during these tests. Results demonstrate that: a) The maximum mean facet stretch at head restraint contact occurs at MS4 and MS5 for the Body Forward condition, b) The lower neck flexion moment, prior to head contact, shows a non-linear relationship with facet stretch, and c) “Differential rebound” during rear end impact increases facet stretch.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of Crash-Induced Dynamic Loads on Race Car Drivers

2002-12-02
2002-01-3305
A MADYMO model of a racing car and driver was driven by 3-D accelerations recorded in actual crashes. Helmet, belt restraint, and padding characteristics were obtained from dynamics tests. Model results of HIC, head accelerations and neck forces and moments were studied along with driver injuries to provide insight into the efficacy of current injury assessment parameters used with the head and neck of crash test dummies. The results are also used to discuss the kinematics performance of the crash test dummy neck as modeled by the MADYMO version of the Hybrid III midsize male crash test dummy.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Abdominal Organs

2002-11-11
2002-22-0003
Typical automotive related abdominal injuries occur due to contact with the rim of the steering wheel, seatbelt and armrest, however, the rate is less than in other body regions. When solid abdominal organs, such as the liver, kidneys and spleen are involved, the injury severity tends to be higher. Although sled and pendulum impact tests have been conducted using cadavers and animals, the mechanical properties and the tissue level injury tolerance of abdominal solid organs are not well characterized. These data are needed in the development of computer models, the improvement of current anthropometric test devices and the enhancement of our understanding of abdominal injury mechanisms. In this study, a series of experimental tests on solid abdominal organs was conducted using porcine liver, kidney and spleen specimens. Additionally, the injury tolerance of the solid organs was deduced from the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Structural Response of Lower Leg Muscles in Compression: A Low Impact Energy Study Employing Volunteers, Cadavers and the Hybrid III

2002-11-11
2002-22-0012
Little has been reported in the literature on the compressive properties of muscle. These data are needed for the development of finite element models that address impact of the muscles, especially in the study of pedestrian impact. Tests were conducted to characterize the compressive response of muscle. Volunteers, cadaveric specimens and a Hybrid III dummy were impacted in the posterior and lateral aspect of the lower leg using a free flying pendulum. Volunteer muscles were tested while tensed and relaxed. The effects of muscle tension were found to influence results, especially in posterior leg impacts. Cadaveric response was found to be similar to that of the relaxed volunteer. The resulting data can be used to identify a material law using an inverse method.
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