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Technical Paper

Equivalent Sand Grain Roughness Correlation for Aircraft Ice Shape Predictions

2019-06-10
2019-01-1978
Many uncertainties in an in-flight ice shape prediction are related to convection heat transfer coefficient, which in turn depends on the flow, turbulence and laminar/turbulent transition models. The height of ice roughness element used to calculate the Equivalent Sand Grain Roughness height (ESGR) is a very important input of the turbulence model as it strongly influences the shape of the accreted ice. Unfortunately, for in-flight icing, the ESGR is unknown and generally calculated using semi-empirical models or empirical correlations based on a particular ice shape prediction code. Each ice shape prediction code is unique due to the models and correlations used and the numerical implementation. Ice roughness correlations do not have the same effect in each ice shape prediction code. A new approach to calculate the ESGR correlation taking into consideration the particularities of the ice shape prediction code is developed, calibrated and validated.
Technical Paper

Multi-level Modeling Methodology for Aircraft Thermal Architecture Design

2018-10-30
2018-01-1910
This paper proposes a new methodology to conduct thermal analysis in the conceptual phase of the aircraft development process. Traditionally, thermal analysis is conducted after the system architecture has already been defined. The aircraft system thermal environment evaluation may lead to late design changes that can have a significant impact on the development process. To reduce the risk of late design changes, thermal requirements need to be defined and validated in the conceptual design phase. This research paper introduces a novel multi-level modeling strategy based on a bottom-up approach. It proposes an automatic geometrical simplification procedure for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis, a methodology for the generation of analytical correlations based on highly detailed methods, and a thermal risk assessment approach based on dimensionless numbers.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Systems Engineering Methodology for Implementing Networked Aircraft Control System on Integrated Modular Avionics – Environmental Control System Case Study

2018-10-30
2018-01-1943
Integrated modular avionics (IMA) architectures host multiple federated avionics applications on a single platform and provide benefits in terms of size, weight, and power, which, however, leads to increased complexity, especially during the development process. To cope efficiently with the high level of complexity, a novel, structured development methodology is required. This paper presents a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) development approach for the so-called “distributed integrated modular architecture” (DIMA). The proposed methodology adapts the open-source Capella tool, based on the Architecture Analysis & Design Integrated Approach (ARCADIA) methodology, to implement a complete design cycle, starting with requirements captured from the aircraft level to streamline the development, culminating in the integration of an avionics application into an ARINC 653 platform.
Technical Paper

Tailplane with Positive Camber for Reduced Elevator Hinge Moment

2015-09-15
2015-01-2566
The Learjet 85 is a business jet with an unpowered manual elevator control and is designed for a maximum dive Mach number of 0.89. During the early design, it was found that the stick force required for a 1.5g pull-up from a dive would exceed the limit set by FAA regulations. A design improvement of the tailplane was initiated, using 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes CFD codes. It was discovered that a small amount of positive camber could reduce the elevator hinge moment for the same tail download at high Mach numbers. This was the result of the stabilizer forebody carrying more of the tail download and the elevator carrying less. Consequently, the elevator hinge-moment during recovery from a high-speed dive was lower than for the original tail. Horizontal tails are conventionally designed with zero or negative camber since a positive camber can have adverse effects on tail stall and drag.
Journal Article

Impact of Cable Bundles and Systems' Integration Rules Dedicated to Metallic Aircraft on the Electromagnetic Immunity of Systems in Composite Aircraft

2014-09-16
2014-01-2122
Advanced commercial aircraft increasingly use more composite or hybrid (metal and composite) materials in structural elements and, despite technological challenges to be overcome, composites remain the future of the aviation industry. Composite and hybrid aircraft today are equipped with digital systems such as fly by wire for reliable operations no matter what the flying environment is. These systems are however very sensitive to electromagnetic energy. During flight, aircraft can face High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF), static electricity, or lightning. The coupling of any of these threats with airframe structure induces electromagnetic energy that can impair the operation of avionics and navigation systems. This paper focuses on systems susceptibility in composite aircraft and concludes that the same electromagnetic rules dedicated to all metal aircraft for systems and wiring integration cannot be applied directly as such for composite aircraft.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Noise Source Identification Using a Microphone Array: Montreal-Trudeau Airport Test Campaign

2013-09-17
2013-01-2129
This paper summarizes the techniques used during a microphone array test campaign performed at Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau Airport in Montréal, Québec (Canada) during the summer of 2012. Emphasis is put on the actual measurement campaign as only a limited amount of analysis has been performed at this stage. An aircraft position tracking tool is presented along with the beamforming algorithms that were used. Over 500 aircraft were recorded during this test. A comparison of known tonal sources associated to a specific aircraft type is made between different airlines in order to evaluate the repeatability of the method.
Technical Paper

Considerations on the Use of Hydrophobic, Superhydrophobic or Icephobic Coatings as a Part of the Aircraft Ice Protection System

2013-09-17
2013-01-2108
Ice adhesion on critical aircraft surfaces is a serious potential hazard that runs the risk of causing accidents. For this reason aircraft are equipped with active ice protection systems (AIPS). AIPS increase fuel consumption and add complexity to the aircraft systems. Reducing energy consumption of the AIPS or replacing the AIPS by a Passive Ice Protection System (PIPS), could significantly reduce aircraft fuel consumption. New coatings with superhydrophobic properties have been developed to reduce water adherence to surfaces. Superhydrophobic coatings can also reduce ice adhesion on surfaces and are used as icephobic coatings. The question is whether superhydrophobic or icephobic coatings would be able to reduce the cost associated with AIPS.
Technical Paper

Efficient 3D Artificial Ice Shapes Simulations with 2D Ice Accretion Codes using a 3-Level Correction

2013-09-17
2013-01-2136
3D ice accretion codes have been available for a few decades but, depending on the specific application, their use may be cumbersome, time consuming and requiring a great deal of expertise in using the code. In particular, simulations of large 3D glaze ice accretions using multiple layers of ice is a very challenging and time consuming task. There are several reasons why 2D icing simulations tools are still widely used in the aircraft industry to produce realistic glaze ice shapes. 2D codes are very fast and robust, with a very short turn-around time. They produce adequate results in areas of the aircraft where 3D effects on airflow or droplets concentration can be neglected. Their use can be extended to other areas of the aircraft if relevant 3D effects can be taken into account. This paper proposes a simulation methodology that includes three levels of corrections to extend the use of 2D icing codes to most of the aircraft surfaces.
Technical Paper

More About Lightning Induced Effects on Systems in a Composite Aircraft

2013-09-17
2013-01-2156
In order to guarantee systems immunity, lightning induced electromagnetic energy has to be lower than the system's susceptibility threshold. This can be achieved, if the aircraft structure provides a good protection against lightning current as well as against its electromagnetic induced field. Moreover such a structure is also required to constitute a ground plane that guarantees very low common mode impedance between all grounded systems in order to keep them at the same electrical potential. The interaction of lightning with aircraft structure, and the coupling of induced energy with harnesses and systems inside the airframe, is a complex phenomenon, mainly for composite aircraft. Composite structures are either not conductive at all (e.g., fiberglass) or are significantly less conductive than metals (e.g., carbon fiber).
Technical Paper

A Robust Iterative Displacement Inspection Algorithm for Quality Control of Aerospace Non-Rigid Parts without Conformation Jig

2013-09-17
2013-01-2173
Nowadays, optimization of manufacturing and assembly operations requires taking into account the inherent processes variations. Geometric and dimensional metrology of mechanical parts is very crucial for the aerospace industry and contributes greatly to its. In a free-state condition, non-rigid parts (or compliant parts) may have a significant different shape than their nominal geometry (CAD model) due to gravity loads and residual stress. Typically, the quality control of such parts requires a special approach where expensive and specialized fixtures are needed to constrain dedicated and follow the component during the inspection. Inspecting these parts without jig will have significant economic impacts for aerospace industries, reducing delays and the cost of product quality inspection. The Iterative Displacement Inspection (IDI) algorithm has been developed to deal with this problem.
Technical Paper

Structural Health Monitoring in Civil Aviation: Applications and Integration

2013-09-17
2013-01-2220
In civil aviation the main driver for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to provide maintenance and ownership benefits. The maintenance benefits are defined in terms of improving maintenance planning, increasing inspection intervals and reducing inspection cost. The ownership benefits can be measured in residual value and life extension. In this paper different aspects of SHM implementation are discussed for fatigue monitoring and fatigue damage sensing with a consideration of minimizing challenges for SHM implementation. First, the current Fatigue Monitoring implementation scenarios for the most representative agile military aircraft are reviewed. In the following some aircraft utilization results obtained from analyzing different airlines are presented. The obtained results show a better possibility of categorizing fleet of an airline in comparison with agile military aircraft.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Systems Integration in Aircraft Conceptual Design - Estimation of Required Space

2013-09-17
2013-01-2235
This paper presents a methodology for conceptual aircraft design to evaluate the space available for systems (top-down approach) and to estimate the space required for critical components impacting the aircraft configuration (bottom-up approach). The presented top-down approach introduces the concept of “equivalent design volume”, including the space required for systems and the associated empty space to access, maintain and ventilate them. This approach enables an early feasibility check for aircraft configuration exploration regarding the integration and installation of systems, without having to detail the system architecture. In complement, the bottom-up approach introduces the estimation of the required dimensions for critical components. Here, the example of the flight control actuators integration in the wing tip is presented.
Technical Paper

An Electrical Load Estimation Tool for Aircraft Conceptual Design

2013-09-17
2013-01-2206
During the development of an aircraft, a comprehensive understanding of the electrical load profile is essential to properly estimate the required electrical power to be generated and distributed by the electrical system, also known as EPGDS - Electrical Power Generation and Distribution System. By sizing the EPGDS early in the development process, system parameters like weight and volume can be estimated and applied to the multidisciplinary design optimization process, in search for optimized design solutions at the conceptual aircraft level when developing integrated aircraft systems. With this in mind, a methodology was developed to estimate the amount of electrical power required by the aircraft systems during a typical mission flight cycle.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost Fuselage Frames by Resin Transfer Molding

2013-09-17
2013-01-2325
This paper presents work on the development of a low cost fuselage C-frame for aircraft primary structure using a Light Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process. Compared to labor intensive hand layup prepreg technologies, Light RTM offers some substantial advantages by reducing infrastructure requirements such as hydraulic presses or autoclaves. Compared to Prepreg, Light RTM tooling creates two finished surfaces, which is an advantage during installation due to improved dimensional accuracy. The focus of this work was to develop means of achieving high fiber volume fraction structural frames using low cost tooling and a low volume manufacturing strategy. In this case a three piece Light RTM mold was developed using an internal mandrel. To achieve the strength requirements, a combination of crimped and non-crimped fabrics were selected for the reinforcing preform.
Technical Paper

IVHM Development and the Big Data Paradigm

2013-09-17
2013-01-2332
This paper discusses the correlation of IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) as an emerging aerospace discipline and the Big Data paradigm widely discussed in the Information Technology industry. The 4-V model is discussed to qualify a Big Data problem in terms of the volume, variety, velocity and veracity of the data involved. Big Data management allows, for example, correlations to be found to “spot business trends, determine quality of research, prevent diseases, combat crime, and determine real-time roadway traffic conditions”. Examining these two fields side by side is necessary and desirable because innovation is very likely to occur when and where different but correlated domains interface. This paper compares the most significant technical components required for Big Data Analytics and IVHM to work.
Technical Paper

An Anecdote - Order of Magnitude Cost and Time Reduction in Delivering an Aircraft Manufacturing Solution

2013-09-17
2013-01-2335
From purchase order to production womb-to-tomb in 5 months to the day, Bombardier's Fuselage Assembly line was upgraded and made into a fuselage automated assembly pulse line. This was accomplished with a factory move of the assembly line while maintaining production of this legacy line without missing one aircraft. Early in 2012, a bold decision was made to change the plan from a manual process to an automated process and implemented on schedule. This was applying automation to a legacy aircraft assembly line. It worked. Both technology and recurring cost savings will be addressed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Design of a Human-Powered Aircraft Applying Multidisciplinary Optimization Method

2013-09-17
2013-01-2318
A particular field of aerospace engineering is dedicated to the study of aircraft that are so energetically efficient, that the power produced by a human being enables it to takeoff and maintain sustained flight without any external or stored energy. These aircraft are known as Human-Powered Aircraft (HPA). The objective of the present work is to design a single-seat HPA applying multidisciplinary optimization techniques with an objective function that minimizes both the power required and the stall speed, representing respectively, an easier and safer aircraft to fly. In the first stage, a parametric synthesis model is created to generate random aircraft and assess their aerodynamic(utilizing a 3D vortex lattice method code and a component drag buildup method for the drag polar), stability and control(utilizing static stability criteria), weight (estimated using historical data) and performance (using the thus calculated data) characteristics.
Technical Paper

The State of PRM Accessibility in Single Aisle Commercial Aircraft

2013-09-17
2013-01-2309
The aging of the world population, and call for greater equality in access to public environments has led to an increase in design for persons with reduced mobility (PRM). There are numerous physical and operational constraints and parameters to overcome when designing a successful and marketable PRM environment. Each program evaluates what is to be considered reasonable based on these guidelines (cost, weight, manufacturability, airframe curvature, footprint required, regulations, and usability). However, there are other less tangible parameters to address. For example, what level of dignity or level of privacy does the PRM environment allow? Does the design require additional assistance to access, or can those who are able make independent use of the environment? Most aircraft manufacturers and design entities have recognized the need to improve accessibility aboard single aisle commercial aircraft (Airbus 320 family, Boeing 737, Embraer 190, Bombardier CSERIES).
Journal Article

Preforming of a Fuselage C-Shaped Frame Manufactured by Resin Transfer Molding

2013-09-17
2013-01-2214
The need for efficient manufacturing approaches has emerged with the increasing usage of composites for structural components in commercial aviation. Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), a process where a fiber preform is injected with resin into a closed tool, can achieve high fiber content required for structural components as well as improved dimensional accuracy since all surfaces are controlled by a tool surface. Moreover, RTM is well suited for parts that can be standardized throughout the aircraft, such as a fuselage frames and stringers. The objective of this investigation is to develop a preforming approach for a C-Shaped Fuselage frame. Two approaches are proposed: tri-axial braiding and hand lay-up of Non-Crimp Fabrics. The fiber architecture of the basic materials as well as the complete preforms is explained. The necessary preforming operations are detailed. The quality control measurement of fiber orientation and thickness are presented.
Journal Article

Reliability Improvement of Lithium Cells Using Laser Welding Process with Design of Experiments

2013-09-17
2013-01-2201
Manufacturing operations introduce unreliability into hardware that is not ordinarily accounted for by reliability design engineering efforts. Inspections and test procedures normally interwoven into fabrication processes are imperfect, and allow defects to escape which later result in field failures. Therefore, if the reliability that is designed and developed into an equipment/system is to be achieved, efforts must be applied during production to insure that reliability is built into the hardware. There are various ways to improve the reliability of a product. These include: Simplification Stress reduction/strength enhancement Design Improvement Using higher quality components Environmental Stress Screening before shipment Process Improvements, etc. This paper concentrates on ‘Manufacturing Process Improvement’ effort through the use of design of experiments, (DOE). Hence, improved levels of reliability can be achieved.
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