Equivalent Sand Grain Roughness Correlation for Aircraft Ice Shape Predictions
Many uncertainties in an in-flight ice shape prediction are related to convection heat transfer coefficient, which in turn depends on the flow, turbulence and laminar/turbulent transition models. The height of ice roughness element used to calculate the Equivalent Sand Grain Roughness height (ESGR) is a very important input of the turbulence model as it strongly influences the shape of the accreted ice. Unfortunately, for in-flight icing, the ESGR is unknown and generally calculated using semi-empirical models or empirical correlations based on a particular ice shape prediction code. Each ice shape prediction code is unique due to the models and correlations used and the numerical implementation. Ice roughness correlations do not have the same effect in each ice shape prediction code. A new approach to calculate the ESGR correlation taking into consideration the particularities of the ice shape prediction code is developed, calibrated and validated.