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Technical Paper

Simulation and Parametric Analysis of Battery Thermal Management System Using Phase Change Material

2020-04-14
2020-01-0866
The thermophysical parameters and amount of composite phase change materials (PCMs) have decisive influence on the thermal control effects of thermal management systems (TMSs). At the same time, the various thermophysical parameters of the composite PCM are interrelated. For example, increasing the thermal conductivity is bound to mean a decrease in the latent heat of phase change, so a balance needs to be achieved between these parameters. In this paper, a prismatic LiFePO4 battery cell cooled by composite PCM is comprehensively analyzed by changing the phase change temperature, thermal conductivity and amount of composite PCM. The influence of the composite PCM parameters on the cooling and temperature homogenization effect of the TMS is analyzed. which can give useful guide to the preparation of composite PCMs and design of the heat transfer enhancement methods for TMSs.
Technical Paper

A New Flux Weakening Control Strategy for IPMSM (Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine) in Automotive Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0466
As one of the core components of electric vehicles(EV), the drive motor system has a significant impact on the EV operation performance. The interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) has a wide range of applications in EV, due to its high efficiency, high power density, high torque current and wide speed range. In the field of EV, motor control system is required to have a high operating range. IPMSM operates at constant torque mode below rated speed and constant power mode above rated speed. The back electromotive force(Back-EMF) generated by the rotor in the constant power mode causes the inverter output voltage to saturate. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the controller is still operating in the linear region by applying a flux weakening(FW) current to the stator.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of External Short-Circuit Safety of NCM/C Li-Ion Power Battery under Different State of Health

2020-04-14
2020-01-0454
With the increasing frequency of fire incidents of electric vehicles, the safety of power batteries has attracted more and more attention. At present, the research on the safety of power batteries is mainly focused on fresh batteries. As the state of health of batteries deepens, how the safety of the battery evolves is not clear enough so far. This paper analyzes the external short-circuit safety of a NCM/C rectangular battery under different state of charges. The results show that when the cycle number is less than 800, the maximum temperature of the battery during short-circuit is below 130 °C. The main failure mode of the battery is bulging in volume or opening of the explosion-proof valve and there is no obvious regularity between the failure mode with the cycle life. However, when the cycle number reaches 1000, the battery goes into thermal runaway during the safety test.
Technical Paper

SOC Estimation Based on an Adaptive Mixed Algorithm

2020-04-14
2020-01-1183
SOC (State of charge) plays an important role in vehicle energy management, utilization of battery pack capacity, battery protection. Model based SOC estimation algorithm is widely regarded as an efficient computing method, but battery model accuracy and measuring noise variance will greatly affect the estimation result. This paper proposed an adaptive mixed estimation algorithm. In the algorithm, the recursive least squares algorithm was used to identify the battery parameters online with a second-order equivalent circuit model, and an adaptive unscented Kalman method was applied to estimate battery SOC. In order to verify the effect of the proposed algorithm, the experimental data of a lithium battery pack was applied to build a simulation model. The results show that the proposed joint algorithm has higher estimation accuracy and minimum root mean square error than other three algorithms.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced Motor Control System for Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0597
Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most popular way to decrease the consumption of petroleum resources and reduce environmental pollutions. Motor control system is one of the most important part of electric vehicles. It includes power supply module, IGBT driver, digital signal processing (DSP) controller, protection adjustment module, and resolver to digital convertor. To implement the control strategies on motor control system, a lot of practical aspects need to be taken into accounts. It includes setup of the initial excitation current, consistency of current between motor and program code, over-modulation, field weakening control, current protection, and so on. In this paper, an induction motor control system for electric vehicles is developed based on DSP. The control strategy is based on the field-oriented control (FOC) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM).
Technical Paper

Dynamic Correction Strategy for SOC Based on Discrete Sliding Mode Observer

2019-04-02
2019-01-1312
Battery state estimation is one of the most important decision parameters for lithium battery energy management. It plays an important role in improving battery energy utilization, ensuring battery safety and enhancing system reliability. This paper is proposed to provide a dynamic correction of SOC in the full working condition, including static condition and dynamic condition. Based on the Coulomb-counting method, the current SOC value of the battery is calculated. Under the static conditions, the open circuit voltage of the battery is used to directly collect the initial SOC. Under the dynamic working conditions, the open circuit voltage of the battery is estimated by the sliding mode observer. Based on the deviation between the calculated and estimated values of the open circuit voltage, the current coefficient of the Coulomb-counting method is dynamically corrected by PI strategy.
Technical Paper

Battery Management System Based on AURIX Multi-Core Architecture

2019-04-02
2019-01-1310
Battery management system (BMS) is the core component of the new energy vehicle battery system. With the increase of energy density of new energy vehicle battery, its control algorithm becomes more and more complex, and the work of the battery management system will be heavier. In order to solve the limits, the hardware, software and control strategy model of battery management system are developed based on AURIX multi-core microcontroller. The microprocessor control unit is developed by using dual-core chip, which meets the functional safety requirements. Dual-core processing of control strategy and individual information acquisition are realized, and the processing efficiency is improved. A four-tier software architecture of battery management system is developed to handle the Dual-core processing. The graphical development of battery management system strategy model is realized by using MATLAB / Simulink.
Technical Paper

Thermal Uniformity of Pouch-Type Lithium Ion Batteries with NCM Cathode Materials under Different Operating Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1000
With the advantages of flexible size and high energy density etc., pouch-type lithium ion battery cells with large capacity have been found more and more applications in electric vehicles. For these large-scale battery cells, thermal uniformity is vital for their safety and cycle life. To be specific, temperature gradients are expected to cause different degradation rates of active materials in different areas, which is possible to cause early failure or even fire and explosion of the battery cell. Thus, it is necessary to illustrate the batterie’s thermal uniformity in detail under different operating conditions. This work investigated the thermal uniformity of two 36 Ah pouch-type NCM/C battery cells with different sizes using both the thermal imaging method and thermoelectric effect method with K-type thermocouples. Experimental results show that there is an obvious temperature gradient on the surface of the pouch-type battery cell.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Engine Torque and Clutch Control During Gear-Shifting Process of Automated Manual Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0866
This paper presents a novel powertrain control system specifically designed for longitudinal motion-control applications of an automated-manual-transmission vehicle, whereby the clutch and throttle modulation and gear change are highly coordinated such that the vehicle can precisely track the target acceleration or deceleration command even during an upshift or a downshift. An observer-free method for estimation of the engine’s operating point under various working condition is developed to compensate for limited sensing and enable effective feed-forward control of the engine torque and the clutch pressure. With minor modifications of the coordination strategies in the existing powertrain control system, the proposed control system can prevent stalling the engine from a standing start and achieve smoother shifting and faster dynamic response of the powertrain system, where non-smooth actuator nonlinearities are addressed explicitly, robustly, and efficiently.
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