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Technical Paper

Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

2018-11-12
2018-22-0003
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male. In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.
Technical Paper

Update of the WorldSID 50th Male Pelvic Injury Criterion and Risk Curve

2018-04-03
2018-01-0539
Petit et al. 2015 and Lebarbé et al. 2016 reported on two studies where the injury mechanism and threshold of the sacroiliac joint were investigated in two slightly oblique crash test conditions from 18 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) tests. They concluded that the sacroiliac joint fractures were associated with pubic rami fractures. These latter being reported to occur first in the time history. Therefore it was recommended not to define a criterion specific for the sacroiliac joint. In 2012, injury risk curves were published for the WorldSID dummy by Petitjean et al. For the pelvis, dummy and PMHS paired tests from six configurations were used (n = 55). All of these configurations were pure lateral impacts. In addition, the sacroiliac joint and femur neck loads were not recorded, and the dummy used was the first production version (WorldSID revision 1). Since that time, the WorldSID was updated several times, including changes in the pelvis area.
Technical Paper

New Reference PMHS Tests to Assess Whole-Body Pedestrian Impact Using a Simplified Generic Vehicle Front-End

2017-11-13
2017-22-0012
This study aims to provide a set of reference post-mortem human subject tests which can be used, with easily reproducible test conditions, for developing and/or validating pedestrian dummies and computational human body models against a road vehicle. An adjustable generic buck was first developed to represent vehicle front-ends. It was composed of four components: two steel cylindrical tubes screwed on rigid supports in V-form represent the bumper and spoiler respectively, a quarter of a steel cylindrical tube represents the bonnet leading edge, and a steel plate represents the bonnet. These components were positioned differently to represent three types of vehicle profile: a sedan, a SUV and a van. Eleven post-mortem human subjects were then impacted laterally in a mid-gait stance by the bucks at 40 km/h: three tests with the sedan, five with the SUV, and three with the van.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

2016-11-07
2016-22-0005
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2016-11-07
2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Proposed Method for Development of Small Female and Midsize Male Thorax Dynamic Response Corridors in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests

2015-11-09
2015-22-0007
Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. Several methods are available in the literature to refine the biofidelity corridors or to extrapolate them to other populations (eg: children, small females, large males). Because of the lack of concrete cases, the relevance of the assumptions is rarely investigated. In 2014, Baudrit et al. published data on thorax dynamic responses of small female and midsize male Post Mortem Human Subjects in side and forward oblique impact tests. The impactor mass was 23.4 kg for all the tests and the nominal impact speed was 4.3 m/s. The diameter of the rigid disk was 130 and 152 mm respectively for the small female specimens and for the midsize male specimens. The authors found that the maximum impact force was a function of the total body mass for each loading.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2012-10-29
2012-22-0008
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO/TC22/SC12/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonised dummy into regulations. The dummy is currently under evaluation at the Working Party on Passive Safety (GRSP) in order to be included in the pole side impact global technical regulation (GTR). Injury risk curves dedicated to this dummy and built on behalf of ISO/TC22/SC12/WG6 were proposed in order to assess the occupant safety performance (Petitjean et al. 2009). At that time, there was no recommendation yet on the injury criteria and no consensus on the most accurate statistical method to be used. Since 2009, ISO/TC22/SC12/WG6 reached a consensus on the definition of guidelines to build injury risk curves, including the use of the survival analysis, the distribution assessment and quality checks.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of the WorldSID 50th and ES-2re Thoraces to Loading Configuration

2010-11-03
2010-22-0013
An ideal injury criterion should be predictive of the risk of injury across the range of loading conditions where it may be applied. The injury risk curve associated with this criterion should be applicable to all loading conditions. With respect to side impact, the injury risk curve should apply to pure lateral or oblique loading by rigid and padded walls, as well as airbags. Trosseille et al., (2009) reported that the number of fractured ribs was higher in pure lateral impact than in forward oblique interaction with an airbag. A good dummy criterion should be able to account for this difference. To evaluate various injury criteria with the WorldSID 50th and ES-2re dummies, the dummies were exposed to the same airbag loadings as the PMHS. The criteria measured in the dummy tests were paired with the rib fractures from the PMHS tests.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Torsional Vibration of the Compliant Sprocket in Balance Chain Drive Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1529
The work presented in this paper outlines the development of a simulation model to aid in the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives. A design with dual-mass flywheel and a crank-mounted compliant chain sprocket greatly reduces interior noise levels due to chain meshing. However, experimental observations showed the compliant sprocket can enter into resonance and generate excessive vibration energy during startup. Special features are incorporated into the compliant sprocket design to absorb and dissipate this energy. Additional damper spring rate, high hysteresis and large motion angle that overlap the driving range may solve the problem during engine start-up period. This work develops a simulation model to help interpret the measured data and rank the effectiveness of the design alternatives. A Multibody dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

Robust Assessment of USCAR Electrical Connectors Using Standardized Signal-To-Noise

2008-04-14
2008-01-0364
Robust assessment using standardized signal-to-noise (SS/N) is a Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology used to assess the mating quality of USCAR electrical connectors. When the insertion force vs. distance relationship is compared to a standard under varying environmental and system-related noise conditions, the ideal function is transformed into a linear relationship between actual and ideal force at the sample points acquired during the mating displacement. Since the ideal function used in the robust assessment of competing designs has a linear slope of 1 through the origin, the SS/N function used is of the form 10 log (1/σ2), also known as nominal-the-best type 2. Using this assessment methodology, designs are compared, with a higher SS/N indicating lower variation from the standard.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Technical Paper

NVH Analysis of Balancer Chain Drives with the Compliant Sprocket of the Crankshaft with a Dual-Mass Flywheel for an Inline-4 Engine

2007-05-15
2007-01-2415
The work presented in this paper outlines the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives in an effort to reduce the noise levels related to chain-sprocket meshing. An experimental observation of a severe chain noise around a resonant engine speed with the Dual-Mass Flywheel (DMF) and standard build solid (fixed) balancer drive sprocket. Torsional oscillation at the crankshaft nose at full load is induced by uneven running of crankshaft with a dual-mass flywheel system. This results in an increase of the undesirable impact noise caused by the meshing between the chain-links and the engagement/disengagement regions of sprockets, and the clatter noise from the interaction between the vibrating chain and the guides. This paper evaluates and discusses the benefits that the compliant sprocket design provided. A multi-body dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0466
This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Simulating Neck Injury in Frontal Impact using LS-DYNA

2007-04-16
2007-01-0677
Neck injury assessment is part of the FMVSS208 requirements. Hardware tests are often conducted to validate whether the vehicle safety system meets the requirements. This paper presents a full vehicle finite element model using LS-DYNA, including structural components, restraint system components, and dummies. In the case of a frontal impact at 30deg angle, in the areas of neck compression, neck extension and neck kinematics, it is demonstrated that a good correlation is achieved between the response of a FE dummy in the model and those of ATDs in the physical hardware tests. It is concluded that the math tool may be applied to comprehend test and design variations that may arise throughout a vehicle development lifecycle and to help develop a vehicle restraint system.
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