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Technical Paper

Predicting Running Vehicle Exhaust Back Pressure in a Laboratory Using Air Flowing at Room Temperature and Spreadsheet Calculations

2009-04-20
2009-01-1154
In today’s highly competitive automotive environment people are always looking to develop processes that are fast, efficient, and effective. Moving testing from expensive prototype vehicles into the laboratory is an approach being implemented for many different vehicle subsystems. Specifically a process has recently been developed at General Motors that predicts exhaust back pressure performance for a running vehicle using laboratory testing and spreadsheet calculations. This paper describes the laboratory facility and procedure, the theory behind the calculations, and the correlation between vehicle test and laboratory based results. It also comments on the benefits of the process with respect to reduction in design iterations, quicker availability of results, and money savings.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Backpressure Estimation for an Internal Combustion Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo Charger

2009-04-20
2009-01-0732
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the key approaches applied to reduce emissions for an internal combustion engine. Recirculating a desired amount of EGR requires accurately estimating EGR mass flow. This can be calculated either from the gas flow equation of an orifice, or from the difference between charge air mass flow and fresh air mass flow. Both calculations need engine exhaust pressure as an input variable. This paper presents a method to estimate exhaust pressure for a variable geometry turbo charged diesel engine. The method is accurate and simple to fit production ECU application, therefore, saves cost of using a physical sensor.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Torsional Vibration of the Compliant Sprocket in Balance Chain Drive Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1529
The work presented in this paper outlines the development of a simulation model to aid in the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives. A design with dual-mass flywheel and a crank-mounted compliant chain sprocket greatly reduces interior noise levels due to chain meshing. However, experimental observations showed the compliant sprocket can enter into resonance and generate excessive vibration energy during startup. Special features are incorporated into the compliant sprocket design to absorb and dissipate this energy. Additional damper spring rate, high hysteresis and large motion angle that overlap the driving range may solve the problem during engine start-up period. This work develops a simulation model to help interpret the measured data and rank the effectiveness of the design alternatives. A Multibody dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Technical Paper

Robust Assessment of USCAR Electrical Connectors Using Standardized Signal-To-Noise

2008-04-14
2008-01-0364
Robust assessment using standardized signal-to-noise (SS/N) is a Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology used to assess the mating quality of USCAR electrical connectors. When the insertion force vs. distance relationship is compared to a standard under varying environmental and system-related noise conditions, the ideal function is transformed into a linear relationship between actual and ideal force at the sample points acquired during the mating displacement. Since the ideal function used in the robust assessment of competing designs has a linear slope of 1 through the origin, the SS/N function used is of the form 10 log (1/σ2), also known as nominal-the-best type 2. Using this assessment methodology, designs are compared, with a higher SS/N indicating lower variation from the standard.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Method for Part-load Engine Simulation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4102
This work provides an effective engineering method of building a part-load engine simulation model from a wide-open throttle (WOT) engine model and available dynamometer data. It shows how to perform part-load engine simulation using optimizer for targeted manifold absolute air pressure (MAP) on a basic matrix of engine speed and MAP. Key combustion parameters were estimated to cover the entire part-load region based on affordable assumptions and limitations. Engine rubbing friction and pumping friction were combined to compare against the motoring torque. The emission data from GM dynamometer laboratory were used to compare against engine simulation results after attaching the RLT sensor to record emission data in the engine simulation model.
Technical Paper

Computational Aeroacoustics Investigation of Automobile Sunroof Buffeting

2007-05-15
2007-01-2403
A numerical investigation of automobile sunroof buffeting on a prototype sport utility vehicle (SUV) is presented, including experimental validation. Buffeting is an unpleasant low frequency booming caused by flow-excited Helmholtz resonance of the interior cabin. Accurate prediction of this phenomenon requires accounting for the bi-directional coupling between the transient shear layer aerodynamics (vortex shedding) and the acoustic response of the cabin. Numerical simulations were performed using the PowerFLOW code, a CFD/CAA software package from Exa Corporation based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The well established LBM approach provides the time-dependent solution to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and directly captures both turbulent and acoustic pressure fluctuations over a wide range of scales given adequate computational grid resolution.
Technical Paper

NVH Analysis of Balancer Chain Drives with the Compliant Sprocket of the Crankshaft with a Dual-Mass Flywheel for an Inline-4 Engine

2007-05-15
2007-01-2415
The work presented in this paper outlines the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives in an effort to reduce the noise levels related to chain-sprocket meshing. An experimental observation of a severe chain noise around a resonant engine speed with the Dual-Mass Flywheel (DMF) and standard build solid (fixed) balancer drive sprocket. Torsional oscillation at the crankshaft nose at full load is induced by uneven running of crankshaft with a dual-mass flywheel system. This results in an increase of the undesirable impact noise caused by the meshing between the chain-links and the engagement/disengagement regions of sprockets, and the clatter noise from the interaction between the vibrating chain and the guides. This paper evaluates and discusses the benefits that the compliant sprocket design provided. A multi-body dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0466
This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

High Performance Vehicle Chassis Structure for NVH Reduction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0708
The main objective of this paper was to determine if the vehicle performance can be maintained with a reduced mass cradle structure. Aluminum and magnesium cradles were compared with the baseline steel cradle. First, the steel chassis alone is analyzed with the refined finite element model and validated with experimental test data for the frequencies, normal modes, stiffnesses and the drive-point mobilities at various attachment mount/bushing locations. The superelement method in conjunction with the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique was used for each component of the vehicle such as Body-In-White, Instrument Panel, Steering Column Housing & Wheel, Seats, Cradles, CRFM, etc. After assemblage of all the superelements, analysis was carried out by changing the front and rear cradle gauges and the material properties. The drive-point mobility response was computed at various locations and the noise (sound pressure) level was calculated at the driver and passenger ears.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy

2006-04-03
2006-01-1346
Cylinder pressure data is so completely integral to the combustion system development process that ensuring measurements of the highest possible accuracy is of paramount importance. Three main areas of the pressure measurement and analysis process control the accuracy of measured cylinder pressure and its derived metrics: 1) Association of the pressure data to the engine's crankshaft position or cylinder volume 2) Pegging, or referencing, the pressure sensor output to a known, absolute pressure level 3) The raw, relative pressure output of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor Certain cylinder pressure-based metrics, such as mean effective pressures (MEP) and heat release parameters, require knowledge of the cylinder volume associated with the sampled pressure data. Accurate determination of the cylinder volume is dependent on knowing the rotational position of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Multi Objective Robust Optimization for Idle Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0757
This paper presents a pioneer work and first time application of Multi Objective Robust Optimization to analytically improve Idle Shake Performance. The method is developed to obtain a robust design with multiple objectives under consideration along with managing material property variation. It was a Robust Optimization on top of Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm, Robu-MOGA. The design variables in the study included the nominal values and tolerances of Sound Transmission Loss property, and interior material Absorption property. The analytical objective was not only to minimize the peak airborne noise at each specified frequency, but also to reduce the total cost and the total mass of the materials. In the study, AutoSEA (statistical energy analysis) from ESI Software, Inc. was used as the solver. AutoSEA was integrated with iSIGHT from Engineous Software, Inc.
Technical Paper

Optimum Design of Hood Ajar Switch For Quality

2006-04-03
2006-01-0735
The Hood ajar sensing system provides customer feedback regarding the latch positional state of hood. If the sensing system is not robust to variation due to manufacturing, thermal conditions, and assembly, diagnostic failures can result. Executing various elements of the design for six sigma process can reduce the potential for diagnostic failures. This paper presents a method for achieving quality improvements by developing transfer functions, and using them for sensitivity and variance analysis. Control parameters were optimized to minimize non-conformal situations in the presence of various noise conditions.
Technical Paper

Case Study - Experimental Determination of Airborne and Structure-borne Road Noise Spectral Content on Passenger Vehicles

2005-05-16
2005-01-2522
Appropriate road noise levels are critical to perceived quality in today's highly competitive automotive industry. Tire noise is often one of the dominant sources. In order to provide effective noise control schemes it is imperative to fully define the noise paths. In this paper, a case study of an experimental lab method is presented that allows definitive understanding of the structure-borne and airborne spectral contributions of tire noise. For this study, interior noise data were collected using a 10 ft road wheel. Data were collected for the front and rear tires. These measurements contained both the structure-borne and airborne contributions. The same test was performed with the tire physically disconnected from the vehicle structure. This measurement contained only the airborne contribution. The structure-borne contribution was then calculated as the difference in noise levels between the two cases.
Technical Paper

SEA Modeling of A Vehicle Door System

2005-05-16
2005-01-2427
The Door system is one of the major paths for vehicle interior noise under a variety of load conditions. In this paper we consider the elements of the door lower (excluding glass) in terms of noise transmission. Passenger car doors are comprised of the outer skin, door cavity, door inner sheet metal, vapor barrier, and interior trim. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models must effectively describe these components in terms of their acoustic properties and capture the dominant behaviors relative to the overall door system. In addition, the models must interface seamlessly with existing vehicle level SEA models. SEA modeling techniques for the door components are discussed with door STL testing and model correlation results.
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