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Technical Paper

Characterization of Gaseous Emissions from Blended Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles during High-Power Cold-Starts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0428
There is a distinct difference between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the market today. One key distinction that can be made is to classify a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) according to its operational behavior in charge depleting (CD) mode. Some PHEVs are capable of using the electric-only propulsion system to achieve all-electric operation for all driving conditions in CD mode, including full power performance. In contrast, some PHEVs, henceforth termed “blended PHEVs”, cannot satisfy the power requirements of all driving conditions with the electric-only propulsion system and occasionally utilize blended CD operation whereby it is necessary to blend the use of the internal combustion (IC) engine with the use of the electric motor(s) to help power the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Testing of a Continuous Emissions Monitor for Trace Level Sulfur Dioxide

2016-04-05
2016-01-0986
The measurement of SO2 levels in vehicle exhaust can provide important information in understanding the relative contribution of sulfur and sulfate from fuel vs. oil source to PM. For this study, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) that can measure SO2 down to 20 ppbV in real-time was built and evaluated. The DOAS consisted of an extractive sampling train, a cylindrical sampling cell with a single-path design to minimize cell volume, a spectrometer, and a deuterium lamp light source with a UVC range of ∼200-230 nanometer (nm). Laboratory tests showed detection limits were approximately in the range of 12 to 15 ppbV and showed good linearity over SO2 concentration ranges of 20 to 953 ppbV. Interference tests showed some interference by NO and by NH3, at levels of 300 ppmV and 16.6 ppmV, respectively.
Journal Article

Evaluation of PM Measurement Precision and the Quivalency of the Single and Three Filter Sampling Methods for LEV III FTP Standards

2016-01-15
2015-01-9045
Present motor vehicle particulate matter (PM) emission measurement regulations (Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065, 1066) require gravimetric determination of PM mass collected onto filter media from dilute exhaust. To improve the current sampling and measurement procedures for TIER 3 PM emissions standard of 3 mg/mile, CFR part 1066 adopted five alternative PM sampling options. One option of great interest is sampling the entire test using a single flow-weighed filter rather than the conventional three-filter (one filter per test phase) approach. The single filter method could lessen the time needed for gravimetric determination by reducing the quantity of filters used for a test and possibly reduce the uncertainty in gravimetric measurements, particularly at sub 1 mg/mile PM levels. This study evaluates the single filter and, to a limited extent, the 2-filter alternatives adopted in 40 CFR Part 1066.
Technical Paper

Ambient Emission Measurements from Parked Regenerations of 2007 and 2010 Diesel Particulate Filters

2014-09-30
2014-01-2353
A novel ambient dilution tunnel has been designed, tested and employed to measure the emissions from active parked regenerations of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The 2007 certified engine had greater regulated emissions than the 2010 certified engine. For a fully loaded 2007 DPF there was an initial period of very large mass emissions, which was then followed by very large number of small particle emissions. The Particle Size Distribution, PSD, was distributed over a large range from 10 nm to 10 μm. The parked regenerations of the 2010 DPF had a much lower initial emission pattern, but the second phase of large numbers of small particles was very similar to the 2007 DPF. The emission results during regeneration have been compared to total emissions from recent engine dynamometer testing of 2007 and 2010 DPFs, and they are much larger.
Technical Paper

Determination of Suspended Exhaust PM Mass for Light-Duty Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1594
This study provides one of the first evaluations of the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method in comparison with the current gravimetric method for measuring particulate matter (PM) emissions from light-duty vehicles. The IPSD method combines particle size distributions with size dependent particle effective density to determine mass concentrations of suspended particles. The method allows for simultaneous determination of particle mass, particle surface area, and particle number concentrations. It will provide a greater understanding of PM mass emissions at low levels, and therefore has the potential to complement the current gravimetric method at low PM emission levels. Six vehicles, including three gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicles, two port fuel injected (PFI) vehicles, and one diesel vehicle, were tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a light-duty chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Gravimetric Method to Measure Light-Duty Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions at Levels below One Milligram per Mile (1 mg/mile)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1571
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted the Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) III regulations in January 2012, which lowered the particulate matter (PM) emissions standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) from 10 milligrams per mile (10 mg/mile) to 3 mg/mile beginning with model year (MY) 2017 and 1 mg/mile beginning with MY 2025. To confirm the ability to measure PM emissions below 1 mg/mile, a total of 23 LDVs (MY pre-2004 to 2009) were tested at CARB's Haagen-Smit Laboratory (HSL) (10 LDVs) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVEFL) (13 LDVs) using the federal test procedure (FTP) drive schedule. One LDV with PM emissions ranging from 0.6 - 0.8 mg/mile was tested at three CARB HSL test cells to investigate intra-lab and inter-lab variability. Reference, trip, and tunnel filter blanks were collected as part of routine quality control (QC) procedures.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with In-Use Two-Stroke Motorcycles and All-Terrain-Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2518
This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and US Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on four in-use off-road two-stroke motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with Small (<19kW) Spark-Ignited Off-Road Equipment Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2517
This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and the United States Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on nine types of off-road equipment with small (<19kW) spark-ignited engines including handheld and non-handheld equipment utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

2013-09-08
2013-24-0170
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Impacts of Biofuels on Emissions for a California Certified Diesel Fuel from Heavy-Duty Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1138
The impact of biodiesel and new generation biofuels on emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel as a base fuel. This study was performed on two heavy-duty diesel engines, a 2006 engine and a diesel particle filter (DPF) equipped 2007 engine, on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy-based and animal-based biodiesel, renewable diesel fuel, and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel were evaluated at blend levels ranging from 5 to 100%. Consistent with previous studies, particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions generally showed increasing reductions with increasing biodiesel and renewable/GTL diesel fuel blend levels for the non-DPF equipped engine. The levels of these reductions were generally comparable to those found in previous studies performed using more typical Federal diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Journal Article

Particulate Emissions for LEV II Light-Duty Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0442
Since the mid-1990s, light-duty vehicles equipped with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been added to the vehicle fleet in increasing numbers. Compared to conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, GDI engines provide higher power output for the same size engine, higher fuel efficiency, and lower carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Due to the paucity of particulate matter (PM) emission data for light-duty gasoline vehicles in general and the increasing interest in these emissions relative to climate and air quality concerns, it is important to investigate PM emissions from current-generation GDI technologies. In this study, nine 2007-2010 light-duty GDI vehicles equipped with either wall-guided or spray-guided fuel injection systems were tested using California commercial gasoline fuel containing six percent ethanol by volume. Criteria pollutants including gaseous and PM emissions were measured over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) transient test cycle.
Journal Article

Determination of the PEMS Measurement Allowance for PM Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program

2012-04-16
2012-01-1250
This paper summarizes the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing (HDUIT) measurement allowance program for Particulate Matter Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS). The measurement allowance program was designed to determine the incremental error between PM measurements using the laboratory constant volume sampler (CVS) filter method and in-use testing with a PEMS. Two independent PM-PEMS that included the Sensors Portable Particulate Measuring Device (PPMD) and the Horiba Transient Particulate Matter (TRPM) were used in this program. An additional instrument that included the AVL Micro Soot Sensor (MSS) was used in conjunction with the Sensors PPMD to be considered a PM-PEMS. A series of steady state and transient tests were performed in a 40 CFR Part 1065 compliant engine dynamometer test cell using a 2007 on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine to quantify the accuracy and precision of the PEMS in comparison with the CVS filter-based method.
Journal Article

Achieving an 80% GHG Reduction by 2050 in California's Passenger Vehicle Fleet: Implications for the ZEV Regulation

2010-10-19
2010-01-2306
In recognizing the potential for large, damaging impacts from climate change, California enacted Executive Order S-03-05, requiring a reduction in statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Given that the transportation light-duty vehicle (LDV) segment accounts for 28% of the state's GHG emissions today, it will be difficult to meet the 2050 goal unless a portfolio of near-zero carbon transportation solutions is pursued. Because it takes decades for a new propulsion system to capture a large fraction of the passenger vehicle market due to vehicle fleet turn-over rates, it is important to accelerate the introduction of these alternatives to ensure markets enter into early commercial volumes (10,000s) between 2015 and 2020. This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a modeling exercise that simulated GHG emissions from the LDV sector to 2050 in California.
Technical Paper

Particulate Mass and Number Emissions from Light-duty Low Emission Gasoline Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0795
Particulate matter (PM) emitted from light-duty gasoline powered vehicles is under increasing scrutiny due to potential adverse health effects and on ever increasing number of vehicles in the fleet. In this program, a group of California ULEV II and SULEV II certified light-duty gasoline vehicles were tested for PM mass and number emissions and compared with older model LEV I certified gasoline vehicles under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test cycle. PM mass and number emissions were collected from a Constant Volume Sampling (CVS) full dilution system. PM mass samples were collected with the gravimetric method. Filter conditioning and weighing procedures are in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065. Total particles (solid and volatile) were measured using multiple fast response particle counting instruments including a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and two Condensation Particle Counters (CPC).
Technical Paper

Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel and Emissions Control Devices

2009-11-02
2009-01-2722
A novel in situ method was performed for measuring emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. The test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. The exhaust configurations were a stock original equipment manufacturer (OEM) muffler and a Thermo King pDPF™ diesel particulate filter. The two TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, as controlled by the TRU user interface. Test results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine operating speeds. Separately, the application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, in some cases almost entirely. Finally, the application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine operating speed, but with an increase in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at low engine speed.
Technical Paper

On-road and In-Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate Effects of ULSD, B20 and B99 on a Retrofit Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2009-11-02
2009-01-2733
In order to demonstrate the performance of a retrofitted selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system while also addressing the issues associated with greater use of biodiesel, a 2005 International 9200i tractor owned by the City of Santa Monica was retrofitted with a titania-vanadia-tungsten catalyst and a urea dosing system supplied by Extengine Systems, Inc. This tractor was operated under normal service conditions within the City of Santa Monica refuse collection and transportation fleet. An on-board emissions measurement system supplied by Engine, Fuel, and Emissions Engineering, Inc. was installed on the vehicle; it measured the emissions and fuel use of the vehicle while it operated on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), 20% biodiesel (B20), and 99% biodiesel (B99) on consecutive days.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Number Measurements from a Clean Diesel Truck Using the European PMP Protocol

2007-04-16
2007-01-1114
The sampling protocol proposed by the international PMP program for determination of particle emissions from clean light-duty vehicles was applied to the emissions from a California heavy-duty trap-equipped diesel truck. CARB is interested in developing opinions about the potential of this new European approach for emission determination and in exploring its utility for use in California. In this exercise, the use of various commercially available instruments for counting and sizing particles in the context of the PMP recommendations are explored. A single vehicle on a chassis dynamometer was exercised over steady-state and transient cycles. Multiple measurements of gaseous, mass, and particle emissions were collected in order to determine statistical significance. The PMP approach yielded particle emission measurements with higher precision and accuracy than the reference mass-based emission measurement.
Technical Paper

Detection of Gasoline Vehicles with Gross PM Emissions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1113
Light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) are estimated to contribute 40% of the total on-road mobile source tailpipe emissions of particulate matter (PM) in California. While considerable efforts have been made to reduce toxic diesel PM emissions going into the future, less emphasis has been placed on PM from LDGVs. The goals of this work were to characterize a small fleet of visibly smoking and high PM emitting LDGVs, to explore the potential PM-reduction benefits of Smog Check and of repairs, and to examine remote sensing devices (RSD) as a potential method for identifying high PM emitters in the in-use fleet. For this study, we recruited a fleet of eight vehicles covering a spectrum of PM emission levels. PM and criteria pollutant emissions were quantified on a dynamometer and CVS dilution tunnel system over the Unified Cycle using standard methods and real time PM instruments.
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