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Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with In-Use Two-Stroke Motorcycles and All-Terrain-Vehicles

This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and US Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on four in-use off-road two-stroke motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Impacts of Biofuels on Emissions for a California Certified Diesel Fuel from Heavy-Duty Engines

The impact of biodiesel and new generation biofuels on emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel as a base fuel. This study was performed on two heavy-duty diesel engines, a 2006 engine and a diesel particle filter (DPF) equipped 2007 engine, on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy-based and animal-based biodiesel, renewable diesel fuel, and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel were evaluated at blend levels ranging from 5 to 100%. Consistent with previous studies, particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions generally showed increasing reductions with increasing biodiesel and renewable/GTL diesel fuel blend levels for the non-DPF equipped engine. The levels of these reductions were generally comparable to those found in previous studies performed using more typical Federal diesel fuels.
Journal Article

Achieving an 80% GHG Reduction by 2050 in California's Passenger Vehicle Fleet: Implications for the ZEV Regulation

In recognizing the potential for large, damaging impacts from climate change, California enacted Executive Order S-03-05, requiring a reduction in statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Given that the transportation light-duty vehicle (LDV) segment accounts for 28% of the state's GHG emissions today, it will be difficult to meet the 2050 goal unless a portfolio of near-zero carbon transportation solutions is pursued. Because it takes decades for a new propulsion system to capture a large fraction of the passenger vehicle market due to vehicle fleet turn-over rates, it is important to accelerate the introduction of these alternatives to ensure markets enter into early commercial volumes (10,000s) between 2015 and 2020. This report summarizes the results and conclusions of a modeling exercise that simulated GHG emissions from the LDV sector to 2050 in California.
Technical Paper

On-road and In-Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate Effects of ULSD, B20 and B99 on a Retrofit Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

In order to demonstrate the performance of a retrofitted selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system while also addressing the issues associated with greater use of biodiesel, a 2005 International 9200i tractor owned by the City of Santa Monica was retrofitted with a titania-vanadia-tungsten catalyst and a urea dosing system supplied by Extengine Systems, Inc. This tractor was operated under normal service conditions within the City of Santa Monica refuse collection and transportation fleet. An on-board emissions measurement system supplied by Engine, Fuel, and Emissions Engineering, Inc. was installed on the vehicle; it measured the emissions and fuel use of the vehicle while it operated on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), 20% biodiesel (B20), and 99% biodiesel (B99) on consecutive days.
Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Emissions Results-CleanFleet Alternative Fuels Project

Vehicle exhaust emissions measurements are reported for full-size panel vans operating on four alternative motor fuels and control gasoline. The emissions tests produced data on in-use vans. The vans were taken directly from commercial delivery service for testing as they accumulated mileage over a 24-month period. The alternative fuels tested were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and methanol (M-85 with 15 percent RFG). The control gasoline for the emissions tests was an industry average unleaded blend (RF-A). The vehicle technologies tested represent those options available in 1992 that were commercially available from Ford, Chrysler, and Chevrolet or which these manufacturers agreed to provide as test vans for daily use in commercial service by FedEx.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from a Vehicle Fueled with Methanol-Containing Additives for Flame Luminosity

Two additive blends proposed for improving the flame luminosity in neat methanol fuel were investigated to determine the effect of these additives on the exhaust emissions in a dual-fueled Volkswagen Jetta. The two blends contained 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan in methanol and 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol. Each blend was tested for regulated and unregulated emissions as well as a speciation of the exhaust hydrocarbons resulting from use of each fuel. The vehicle exhaust emissions from these two fuel blends were compared to the Coordinating Research Council Auto-Oil national average gasoline (RF-A), M100, and M85 blended from RF-A. Carter Maximum Incremental Reactivity Factors were applied to the speciated hydrocarbon emission results to determine the potential ozone formation for each fuel. Toxic emissions as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act were also compared for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Evaluation of Additives for Flame Luminosity Improvement in Neat Methanol Fuel

Neat methanol fuel (M100) has many advantages for achieving low emission levels as an automotive fuel, but there are several items that require attention before this fuel can replace conventional fuels. One item involves the low flame luminosity of methanol. An extensive literature search and laboratory evaluation were conducted to identify potential additive candidates to improve the luminosity of a methanol flame. Potential compounds were screened based on their concentration, luminosity improvement, and duration of luminosity improvement during the burn. Three compounds were found to increase the flame luminosity for segments of the burn at relatively low concentrations: toluene, cyclopentene, and indan. In combination, these three compounds markedly improved the luminosity of methanol throughout the majority of the burn. The two combinations were 1) 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan and 2) 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol.
Technical Paper

Gasohol: Technical, Economic, or Political Panacea?

Gasohol, a blend of 90 percent unleaded gasoline and 10 percent ethanol, has been represented as an alternative to pure gasoline which can reduce the nation’s crude oil dependence. However, a systems analysis of the gasohol production processes indicates that gasohol is increasing rather than decreasing the nation’s dependence on crude oil. Alternative uses of the petroleum and natural gas currently used to manufacture ethanol would reduce the nation’s demand for oil. At the present time, every gallon of crude oil “saved” by substituting ethanol for gasoline results in a need to import approximately two gallons of crude oil. The federal government’s claim that gasohol can reduce the nation’s dependence on imported energy appears, to be based principally on political considerations, but also on the assumption that coal will eventually replace the petroleum and natural gas currently used in the gasohol production wherever possible.