Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 11 of 11
Technical Paper

Methodology to Perform Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling for a Piston on a Sector Geometry for Direct-Injection Internal Combustion Engine Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0210
The increase in computational power in recent times has led to multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling tools being used extensively for optimizing the diesel engine piston design. However, it is still common practice in engine CFD modeling to use constant uniform boundary temperatures. This is either due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring the component temperatures or the lack of measurements when simulation is being used predictively. This assumption introduces uncertainty in heat flux predictions. Conjugate heat transfer (CHT) modeling is an approach used to predict the component temperatures by simultaneously modeling the heat transfer in the fluid and the solid phase. However, CHT simulations are computationally expensive as they require more than one engine cycle to be simulated to converge to a steady cycle-averaged component temperature.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Journal Article

Development and Implementation of a Mapless, Model Based SCR Control System

2014-07-01
2014-01-9050
Various engine platforms employ Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology to reduce the tail pipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from diesel engines as part of an overall strategy to comply with the emission regulations in place in various countries. High levels of NOx conversion (greater than 98%) in SCR aftertreatment may provide operating margin to increase overall fuel efficiency. However, to realize the potential fuel efficiency gains, the SCR technology employed should achieve high NOx conversion with limited reductant slip over transient application cycles in addition to steady state operation. A new approach to SCR controls was developed and implemented. This approach does not rely on any maps to determine the amount of urea solution to be dosed, thus significantly reducing calibration and development time and effort when implementing the SCR technology on multiple engine platforms and applications.
Technical Paper

Field Testing of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine and Aftertreatement Durability, Performance, and Maintenance in an On-Highway Application

2013-04-08
2013-01-0511
This paper features an application study on the impact of different blend levels of commercially-supplied biodiesel on engine and aftertreatment systems' durability and reliability as well as the impact on owning and operating factors: service intervals and fuel economy. The study was conducted on a bus application with a 2007 on highway emissions equipped engine running biodiesel blends of B5, B20, and B99 for a total period approaching 4500 hours. Biodiesel of waste cooking grease feedstock was used for the majority of the testing, including B5 and B20 blends. Biodiesel of soybean feedstock was used for testing on B99 blend. No negative impacts on engine and aftertreatment performance and durability or indication of future potential issues were found when using B5 and B20. For B99 measurable impacts on engine and aftertreatment performance and owning and operating cost were observed.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Technical Paper

Applying Ball Bearings to the Series Turbochargers for the Caterpillar® Heavy-Duty On-Highway Truck Engines

2007-10-30
2007-01-4235
Fuel is a significant portion of the operating cost for an on-highway diesel engine and fuel economy is important to the economics of shipping most goods in North America. Cat® ACERT™ engine technology is no exception. Ball bearings have been applied to the series turbochargers for the Caterpillar heavy-duty, on-highway diesel truck engines in order to reduce mechanical loss for improved efficiency and lower fuel consumption. Over many years of turbocharger development, much effort has been put into improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the compressor and turbine stages. Over the same span of time, the mechanical bearing losses of a turbocharger have not experienced a significant reduction in power consumption. Most turbochargers continue to use conventional hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings to support the rotor. While these conventional bearings provide a low cost solution, they do create significant mechanical loss.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of the Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer for Piston Gallery Cooling System

2007-10-29
2007-01-4128
Numerical models are used in this study to investigate the oil flow and heat transfer in the piston gallery of a diesel engine. An experiment is set up to validate the numerical models. In the experiment a fixed, but adjustable steel plate is instrumented and pre-heated to a certain temperature. The oil is injected vertically upwards from an underneath injector and impinges on the bottom of the plate. The reduction of the plate temperature is recorded by the thermocouples pre-mounted in the plate. The numerical models are used to predict the temperature history at the thermocouple locations and validated with the experimental data. After the rig model validation, the numerical models are applied to evaluate the oil sloshing and heat transfer in the piston gallery. The piston motion is modeled by a dynamic mesh model, and the oil sloshing is modeled by the VOF (volume of fluid) multiphase model.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Modeling the Effects of Gas Exchange Processes on HCCI Combustion and Its Application in Evaluating Variable Valve Timing Control Strategies

2002-10-21
2002-01-2829
The present study introduces a modeling approach for investigating the effects of valve events and gas exchange processes in the framework of a full-cycle HCCI engine simulation. A multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code, KIVA-3V, is used to simulate exhaust, intake and compression up to a transition point, before which chemical reactions become important. The results are then used to initialize the zones of a multi-zone, thermo-kinetic code, which computes the combustion event and part of the expansion. After the description and the validation of the model against experimental data, the application of the method is illustrated in the context of variable valve actuation. It has been shown that early exhaust valve closing, accompanied by late intake valve opening, has the potential to provide effective control of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

1996-02-01
960048
Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Engine Electronics Technology

1993-09-01
932404
Electronics technology has evolved significantly since the first electronically controlled heavy duty on-highway truck engines were introduced in the mid 1980's. Engine control hardware, software, and sensor designs have been driven by many factors. Emissions regulations, fuel economy, engine performance, operator features, fleet management information, diagnostics, vehicle integration, reliability, and new electronics technology are some of those factors. The latest engine electronics technology is not only found in heavy duty on-highway trucks, but in off-highway applications as well. Track-type tractors, haul trucks, wheel loaders, and agricultural tractors now benefit from the advantages of electronic engines. And, many more new applications are being developed.
X