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Technical Paper

FD&E Total Life T-Sample Residual Stress Analytical Predictions and Measured Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0528
The Society of Automotive Engineers Fatigue Design & Evaluation Committee [SAE FD&E] is actively working on a total life project for weldments, in which the welding residual stress is a key contributor to an accurate assessment of fatigue life. Physics-based welding process simulation and various types of residual stress measurements were pursued to provide a representation of the residual stress field at the failure location in the fatigue samples. A well-controlled and documented robotic welding process was used for all sample fabrications to provide accurate inputs for the welding simulations. One destructive (contour method) residual stress measurement and several non-destructive residual stress measurements-surface X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), and neutron diffraction (ND)-were performed on the same or similarly welded samples.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Perform Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling for a Piston on a Sector Geometry for Direct-Injection Internal Combustion Engine Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0210
The increase in computational power in recent times has led to multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling tools being used extensively for optimizing the diesel engine piston design. However, it is still common practice in engine CFD modeling to use constant uniform boundary temperatures. This is either due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring the component temperatures or the lack of measurements when simulation is being used predictively. This assumption introduces uncertainty in heat flux predictions. Conjugate heat transfer (CHT) modeling is an approach used to predict the component temperatures by simultaneously modeling the heat transfer in the fluid and the solid phase. However, CHT simulations are computationally expensive as they require more than one engine cycle to be simulated to converge to a steady cycle-averaged component temperature.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Diesel Engine CFD Modeling Predictions Using a Semi-Empirical Soot Model over a Broad Range of Combustion Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0242
Single-cylinder engine experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were used in this study to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of the modeling approach, with a focus on soot emissions. A semi-empirical soot model, the classic two-step Hiroyasu model with Nagle and Strickland-Constable oxidation, was used. A broad range of direct-injected (DI) combustion systems were investigated to assess the predictive accuracy of the soot model as a design tool for modern DI diesel engines. Experiments were conducted on a 2.5 liter single-cylinder engine. Combustion system combinations included three unique piston bowl shapes and seven variants of a common rail fuel injector. The pistons included a baseline “Mexican hat” piston, a reentrant piston, and a non-axisymmetric piston similar to the Volvo WAVE design. The injectors featured six or seven holes and systematically varied included angles from 120 to 150 degrees and hole sizes from 170 to 273 μm.
Technical Paper

A New Validation of Spray Penetration Models for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0826
The performance of five positive k-factor injector tips has been assessed in this work by analyzing a comprehensive set of injected mass, momentum, and spray measurements. Using high speed shadowgraphs of the injected diesel plumes, the sensitivities of measured vapor penetration and dispersion to injection pressure (100-250MPa) and ambient density (20-52 kg/m3) have been compared with the Naber-Siebers empirical spray model to gain understanding of second order effects of orifice diameter. Varying in size from 137 to 353μm, the orifice diameters and corresponding injector tips are appropriate for a relatively wide range of engine cylinder sizes (from 0.5 to 5L). In this regime, decreasing the orifice exit diameter was found to reduce spray penetration sensitivity to differential injection pressure. The cone angle and k-factored orifice exit diameter were found to be uncorrelated.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0703
Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RoHS on Electric Vehicles in the Chinese Automotive Market

2016-09-27
2016-01-8124
China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
Technical Paper

Investigating Limitations of a Two-Zone NOx Model Applied to DI Diesel Combustion Using 3-D Modeling

2016-04-05
2016-01-0576
A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model.
Journal Article

Transient, Three Dimensional CFD Model of the Complete Engine Lubrication System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1091
This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
Journal Article

Obtaining Structure-borne Input for Hybrid FEA/SEA Engine Enclosure Models through a Simplified Transfer Path Analysis

2015-06-15
2015-01-2349
Structure-borne inputs to hybrid FEA/SEA models could have significant effects on the model prediction accuracy. The purpose of this work was to obtain the structure-borne noise (SBN) inputs using a simplified transfer path analysis (TPA) and identify the significance of the structure-borne and airborne contributions to the spectator sound power of an engine with enclosure for future modeling references. Force inputs to the enclosure from the engine were obtained and used as inputs to a hybrid engine enclosure model for sound prediction.
Technical Paper

Multivariate Regression and Generalized Linear Model Optimization in Diesel Transient Performance Calibration

2013-10-14
2013-01-2604
With stringent emission regulations, aftertreatment systems with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet PM and NOx emissions. The adoption of aftertreatment increases the back pressure on a typical diesel engine and makes engine calibration a complicated process, requiring thousands of steady state testing points to optimize engine performance. When configuring an engine to meet Tier IV final emission regulations in the USA or corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe, this high back pressure dramatically impacts transient performance. The peak NOx, smoke and exhaust temperature during a diesel engine transient cycle, such as the Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), will in turn affect the performance of the aftertreatment system and the tailpipe emissions level.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1095
Traditional Lagrangian spray modeling approaches for internal combustion engines are highly grid-dependent due to insufficient resolution in the near nozzle region. This is primarily because of inherent restrictions of volume fraction with the Lagrangian assumption together with high computational costs associated with small grid sizes. A state-of-the-art grid-convergent spray modeling approach was recently developed and implemented by Senecal et al., (ASME-ICEF2012-92043) in the CONVERGE software. The key features of the methodology include Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), advanced liquid-gas momentum coupling, and improved distribution of the liquid phase, which enables use of cell sizes smaller than the nozzle diameter. This modeling approach was rigorously validated against non-evaporating, evaporating, and reacting data from the literature.
Technical Paper

Obtaining Structure-Borne Input Power for a SEA Model of an Earthmoving Machine Cab

2011-05-17
2011-01-1732
Properly characterizing input forces is an important part of simulating structure-borne noise problems. The purpose of this work was to apply a known force reconstruction technique to an earthmoving machinery cab to obtain input functions for modeling purposes. The technique was performed on a cab under controlled laboratory conditions to gain confidence in the method prior to use on actual machines. Forces were measured directly using force transducers and compared to results from the force reconstruction technique. The measured forces and vibrations were used as input power to an SEA model with favorable results.
Technical Paper

Identification and Reduction of Booming Noise on a Motor Grader

2011-05-17
2011-01-1729
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machines' performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in a motor grader when it is used under certain operating conditions that cause low frequency excitations to the machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, both simulation and testing techniques were leveraged to reduce the booming noise of a motor grader. Simultaneous structural/acoustics simulations and experimental modal tests were performed to evaluate this phenomenon. The simulation models were validated using test results and then used to evaluate solutions to this noise problem. Further field tests confirmed the validity of these recommended solutions.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 2: Prediction and Optimization

2010-10-25
2010-01-2238
Today's engine and combustion process development is closely related to the intake port layout. Combustion, performance and emissions are coupled to the intensity of turbulence, the quality of mixture formation and the distribution of residual gas, all of which depend on the in-cylinder charge motion, which is mainly determined by the intake port and cylinder head design. Additionally, an increasing level of volumetric efficiency is demanded for a high power output. Most optimization efforts on typical homogeneous charge spark ignition (HCSI) engines have been at low loads because that is all that is required for a vehicle to make it through the FTP cycle. However, due to pumping losses, this is where such engines are least efficient, so it would be good to find strategies to allow the engine to operate at higher loads.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 1: Development and Validation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2239
Hybrid vehicle engines modified for high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are a good choice for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. Such operation can result in an HEV when a downsized engine is used at high load for a large fraction of its run time to recharge the battery or provide acceleration assist. However, high EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause serious performance problems such as incomplete combustion, torque fluctuation, and engine misfire. An efficient way to overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to increased turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR. It is accepted that the detailed experimental characterization of flow field near top dead center (TDC) in an engine environment is no longer practical and cost effective.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design Accelerates the Development of Mechanical Locomotive Controls

2010-10-05
2010-01-1999
Smaller locomotives often use mechanical transmissions instead of diesel-electric drive systems typically used in larger locomotives. This paper discusses how Model Based Design was used to develop the complete drive train control system for a 24 ton sugar cane locomotive. A complete MATLAB Simulink machine model was built to fully test and verify the shift control logic, traction control, vehicle speed limiting, and braking control for this locomotive application before it was commissioned. The model included the engine, torque converter, planetary transmission, drive line, and steel on steel driving surface. Simulation was used to debug all control code and test and refine control strategies so that the initial field commissioning in remote Australia was executed very quickly with minimal engineering support required.
Technical Paper

Linkage and Structural Optimization of an Earth Moving Machine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0496
Faced with competitive environments, pressure to lower development costs and aggressive timelines engineers are not only increasingly adopting numerical simulation techniques but are also embracing design optimization schemes to augment their efforts. These techniques not only provide more understanding of the trade-offs but are also capable of proactively guiding the decision making process. However, design optimization and exploration tools have struggled to find complete acceptance and are typically underutilized in many applications; especially in situations where the algorithms have to compete with existing swift decision making processes. In this paper we demonstrate how the type of setup and algorithmic choice can have an influence and make optimization more lucrative in a new product development atmosphere. We also present some results from a design exploration activity, involving linkage and structural development, of an earth moving machine application.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control Module Network and Data Link Development and Validation using Hardware in the Loop Systems

2009-10-06
2009-01-2840
Increasingly, the exchanges of data in complex ECM (Electronic Control Module) systems rely on multiple communication networks across various physical and network layers. This has greatly increased system flexibility and provided an excellent medium to create well-defined exchangeable interfaces between components; however this added flexibility comes with increased network complexity. A system-level approach allows for the optimization of data exchange and network configuration as well as the development of a comprehensive network failure strategy. Many current ECM systems utilize complex multi-network communication strategies to exchange and control data to components. Recently, Caterpillar implemented an HIL (Hardware-In-the-Loop) test system that provides an approach for developing and testing a comprehensive ECM network strategy.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

2009-05-19
2009-01-2239
The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
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