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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Narrow-Band Noise Generation by Automotive Cooling Fans

Axial cooling fans are commonly used in electric vehicles to cool batteries with high heating load. One drawback of the cooling fans is the high aeroacoustic noise level resulting from the fan blades and the obstacles facing the airflow. To create a comfortable cabin environment in the vehicle, and to reduce exterior noise emission, a low-noise installation design of the axial fan is required. The purpose of the project is to develop an efficient computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulation process to assist the cooling-fan installation design. This paper reports the current progress of the development, where the narrow-band components of the fan noise is focused on. Two methods are used to compute the noise source. In the first method the source is computed from the flow field obtained using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (unsteady RANS, or URANS) model.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains - Factors That Impact Accuracy of CO₂ Emissions

Modelling is widely used for the development of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain technologies, since it can provide accurate prediction of fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions, for a fraction of the resources required in experiments. For comparison of different technologies or powertrain parameters, the results should be accurate relative to each other, since powertrains are simulated under identical model details and simulation parameters. However, when CO₂ emissions of a vehicle model are simulated under a driving cycle, significant deviances may occur between actual tests and simulation results, compromising the integrity of simulations. Therefore, this paper investigates the effects of certain modelling and simulation parameters on CO₂ emission results, for a parallel HEV under three driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC and RTS95 to simulate real driving emissions (RDE)).
Technical Paper

Battery Parameter Estimation from Recorded Fleet Data

Existing battery parameter model structures are evaluated by estimating model parameters on real driving data applying standard system identification methods. Models are then evaluated on the test data in terms of goodness of fit and RMSE in voltage predictions. This is different from previous battery model evaluations where a common approach is to train parameters using standardized tests, e.g. hybrid pulse-power capability (HPPC), with predetermined charge and discharge sequences. Equivalent linear circuit models of different complexity were tested and evaluated in order to identify parameter dependencies at different state of charge levels and temperatures. Models are then used to create voltage output given a current, state of charge and temperature. The average accuracy of modelling the DC bus voltage provides a model goodness of fit average higher than 90% for a single RC circuit model.
Technical Paper

Temperature Oscillations in the Wall of a Cooled Multi Pulsejet Propeller for Aeronautic Propulsion

Environmental and economic issues related to the aeronautic transport, with particular reference to the high-speed one are opening new perspectives to pulsejets and derived pulse detonation engines. Their importance relates to high thrust to weight ratio and low cost of manufacturing with very low energy efficiency. This papers presents a preliminary evaluation in the direction of a new family of pulsejets which can be coupled with both an air compression system which is currently in pre-patenting study and a more efficient and enduring valve systems with respect to today ones. This new pulsejet has bee specifically studied to reach three objectives: a better thermodynamic efficiency, a substantial reduction of vibrations by a multi-chamber cooled architecture, a much longer operative life by more affordable valves. Another objective of this research connects directly to the possibility of feeding the pulsejet with hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Evaporation of Gasoline-Like and Ethanol-Based Fuels in Hollow-Cone Sprays Investigated by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Mie Scattering

The evaporation of different fuels and fuel components in hollow-cone sprays at conditions similar to those at stratified cold start has been investigated using a combination of planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Ketones of different volatility were used as fluorescent tracers for different fuel components in gasoline-like model fuels and ethanol-based fuels. LIF and Mie images were compared to evaluate to what extent various fuel components had evaporated and obtained a spatial distribution different from that of the liquid drops, as a function of fuel temperature and time after start of injection. A selective and sequential evaporation of fuel components of different volatility was found.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Identification, and Separation of Crankshaft Dynamics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Mathematical models of a torque sensor equipped crankshaft in a light-duty diesel engine are identified, validated, and compared. The models are based on in-cylinder pressure and crankshaft torque data collected from a 5-cylinder common-rail diesel engine running at multiple operating points. The work is motivated by the need of a crankshaft model in a closed-loop combustion control system based on crankshaft torque measurements. In such a system a crankshaft model is used in order to separate the measured crankshaft torque into cylinder individual torque contributions. A method for this is described and used for IMEP estimation. Not surprisingly, the results indicate that higher order models are able to estimate crankshaft torque more accurately than lower order models, even if the differences are small. For IMEP estimation using the cylinder separation method however, these differences have large effects on accuracy.
Journal Article

CFD-Based Optimization of a Diesel-fueled Free Piston Engine Prototype for Conventional and HCCI Combustion

This paper presents results of a parametric CFD modeling study of a prototype Free Piston Engine (FPE), designed for application in a series hybrid electric vehicle. Since the piston motion is governed by Newton's second law, accounting for the forces acting on the piston/translator, i.e. friction forces, electrical forces, and in-cylinder gas forces, having a high-level control system is vital. The control system changes the electrical force applied during the stroke, thus obtaining the desired compression ratio. Identical control algorithms were implemented in a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to those applied in the prototype engine. The ignition delay and heat release data used in the MATLAB/SIMULINK model are predicted by the KIVA-3V CFD code which incorporates detailed chemical kinetics (305 reactions among 70 species).
Technical Paper

Modification of a Diesel Oil Surrogate Model for 3D CFD Simulation of Conventional and HCCI Combustion

This paper describes an analysis of the Diesel Oil Surrogate (DOS) model used at Chalmers University (Sweden), including 70 species participating in 310 reactions, and subsequent improvements prompted by the model's systematic tendency to under-predict the combustion intensity in simulations of kinetically-driven combustion modes, e.g. Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI). Key bases of the model are the properties of a model Diesel fuel with the molecular formula C14H28. In the vapor phase, a global reaction decomposes the starting fuel, C14H28, into its constituent components; n-heptane (C7H16) and toluene (C7H8). This global reaction was modified to yield a higher n-heptane:toluene ratio, due to the importance of preserving an n-heptane-like cetane number.
Technical Paper

Reduction of EMI in Switched Mode Converters by Shaped Pulse Transitions

An idea of reducing the amplitude of higher order harmonic frequencies from PWM switching pattern is presented and analyzed in this paper. For experimental studies a flexi-ble curve shaping circuit was developed and implemented for achieving and controlling smooth transitions in a DC/DC PWM controlled converter for a 12 V system. A comparison between trapezoidal and sinusoidal transitions is made and it is found that a sinusoidal transition gives better EMI performance without increasing the switching losses. In order to further reduce the EMI, a strategy of controlling the output voltage transitions in a MOSFET by “pre-charging” its gate is derived and investigated. The developed practical circuit is tested with sinusoidal reference for a purely resistive load and an R-L load. Frequency responses obtained from simulations and measurements are compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
Technical Paper

Achieving a Cost Efficient and Dependability Scalable System for Automotive Applications, Using the QRcontrol Communication Protocol

This paper presents methods to easily increase the dependability and fault tolerance of a scalable bit-oriented cyclic protocol, QRcontrol, utilizing TDMA technique. Minor changes to the protocol software and built-in techniques in the controller can give increased dependability for changing requirements on the system. These techniques include for example enabling of double buses, checksums for a node or a whole TDMA cycle, bus guardians and different fault detection mechanisms for some or all nodes in the cluster. The concept can be assigned to a very broad range of applications, from body electronics in cars to “By-Wire” applications with the highest dependability requirements.
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.