Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

48V Mild-Hybrid Architecture Types, Fuels and Power Levels Needed to Achieve 75g CO2/km

2019-04-02
2019-01-0366
48V mild hybrid powertrains are promising technologies for cost-effective compliance with future CO2 emissions standards. Current 48V powertrains with integrated belt starter generators (P0) with downsized engines achieve CO2 emissions of 95 g/km in the NEDC. However, to reach 75 g/km, it may be necessary to combine new 48V powertrain architectures with alternative fuels. Therefore, this paper compares CO2 emissions from different 48V powertrain architectures (P0, P1, P2, P3) with different electric power levels under various driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC, and RTS95). A numerical model of a compact class passenger car with a 48V powertrain was created and experimental fuel consumption maps for engines running on different fuels (gasoline, Diesel, E85, CNG) were used to simulate its CO2 emissions. The simulation results were analysed to determine why specific powertrain combinations were more efficient under certain driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays Under Fuel Injection Pressures up to 150 MPa with Different Nozzle Geometries

2019-01-15
2019-01-0063
Maximum fuel injection pressures for GDI engines is expected to increase due to positive effects on emissions and engine-efficiency. Current GDI injectors have maximum operating pressures of 35 MPa, but higher injection pressures have yielded promising reductions in particle number (PN) and improved combustion stability. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, and there have been few studies on fuel sprays formed at high injection pressures. This paper summarizes experimental studies on the properties of sprays formed at high injection pressures. The results of these experiments can be used as inputs for CFD simulations and studies on combustion behavior, emissions formation, and combustion system design. The experiments were conducted using an injection rate meter and optical methods in a constant volume spray chamber. Injection rate measurements were performed to determine the injectors’ flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

Methane Direct Injection in an Optical SI Engine - Comparison between Different Combustion Modes

2019-01-15
2019-01-0083
Natural gas, biogas, and biomethane are attractive fuels for compressed natural gas (CNG) engines because of their beneficial physical and chemical characteristics. This paper examines three combustion modes - homogeneous stoichiometric, homogeneous lean burn, and stratified combustion - in an optical single cylinder engine with a gas direct injection system operating with an injection pressure of 18 bar. The combustion process in each mode was characterized by indicated parameters, recording combustion images, and analysing combustion chemiluminescence emission spectra. Pure methane, which is the main component of CNG (up to 98%) or biomethane (> 98 %), was used as the fuel. Chemiluminescence emission spectrum analysis showed that OH* and CN* peaks appeared at their characteristic wavelengths in all three combustion modes. The peak of OH* and broadband CO2* intensities were strongly dependent on the air/fuel ratio conditions in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Methanol and Diesel Direct Injection HD Single Cylinder Engine Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-0259
Laws concerning emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are needed to satisfy these new requirements and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives can be to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). A suitable candidate is methanol. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate the possible advantages of combusting methanol in a heavy duty Diesel engine. Those are, among others, lower particulate emissions and thereby bypassing the NOx-soot trade-off. Because of methanol’s poor auto-ignition properties, Diesel was used as an igniting sources and both fuels were separately direct injected. Therefore, two separate standard common rail Diesel injection systems were used together with a newly designed cylinder head and adapted injection nozzles.
Technical Paper

Influence of Considering Non-Ideal Thermodynamics on Droplet Evaporation and Spray Formation (for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Conditions) Using VSB2 Spray Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0181
This work utilizes previously developed VSB2 (VSB2 Stochastic Blob and Bubble) multicomponent fuel spray model to study significance of using non-ideal thermodynamics for droplet evaporation under direct injection engine like operating conditions. Non-ideal thermodynamics is used to account for vapor-liquid equilibrium arising from evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets. In specific, the evaporation of ethanol/iso-octane blend is studied in this work. Two compositions of the blend are tested, E-10 and E-85 respectively (the number denotes percentage of ethanol in blend). The VSB2 spray model is implemented into OpenFoam CFD code which is used to study evaporation of the blend in constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid and vapor penetration lengths for the E-10 case are calculated and compared with the experiment. The simulation results show reasonable agreement with the experiment. Simulation is performed with two methods- ideal and non-ideal thermodynamics respectively.
Technical Paper

LES Investigation of ECN Spray G2 with an Eulerian Stochastic Field Cavitation Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0291
Due to an ongoing trend of high injection pressures in the realm of internal combustion engines, the role of cavitation that typically happens inside the injector nozzle has become increasingly important. In this work, a large Eddy Simulation (LES) with cavitation modeled on the basis of an Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) method and a homogeneous mixture model is performed to investigate the role of cavitation on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray G2. The Eulerian stochastic field cavitation model is coupled to a pressure based solver for the flow, which lowers the computational cost, thereby making the methodology highly applicable to realistic injector geometries. Moreover, the nature of the Eulerian stochastic field method makes it more convenient to achieve a high scalability when applied to parallel cases, which gives the method the edge over cavitation models that are based on Lagrangian tracking.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Ethanol Injection under Diesel-Like Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0857
Laws concerning to emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are therefore needed to satisfy these new legal requirements and reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives is to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are more sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gas, particulates and NOx. As a first step towards the development of a direct injected dual fuel engine using diesel fuel and renewable alcohols such as methanol or ethanol, we have studied ethanol (E100) sprays generated with a standard high pressure diesel fuel injection system in a high pressure/temperature spray chamber with optical access. The experiments were performed at a gas density of ∼27kg/m3 at ∼550 °C and ∼60 bar, representing typical operating conditions for a HD engine at low loads.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Drop-In Diesel Fuel Blends Containing Heavy Alcohols Considering Both Engine Properties and Global Warming Potentials

2016-10-17
2016-01-2254
Heavy alcohols can be mixed with fossil diesel to produce blended fuels that can be used in diesel engines. Alcohols can be obtained from fossil resources, but can also be produced more sustainably from renewable raw materials. The use of such biofuels can help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. This study examines four alcohol/diesel blends each containing one heavy alcohol: n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-ethyl hexanol and n-octanol. All of the blends where prepared to function as drop-in fuels in existing engines with factory settings. To compensate for the alcohols′ low cetane numbers (CN), a third component with high CN was added to each blend, namely hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). The composition of each mixture was selected to give an overall CN equal to that of fossil diesel fuel.
Journal Article

Effects of Nozzle Geometry on the Characteristics of an Evaporating Diesel Spray

2016-10-17
2016-01-2197
The effects of nozzle geometry on diesel spray characteristics were studied in a spray chamber under evaporating conditions using three single-hole nozzles, one cylindrical and two convergent, designated N1 (outlet diameter 140 μm, k-factor 0), N2 (outlet diameter 140 μm, k-factor 2) and N3 (outlet diameter 136 μm, k-factor 2). Spray experiments were performed with each nozzle at two constant gas densities (15 and 30 kg/m3) and an ambient temperature (673 K) at which evaporation occurs, with injection pressures ranging from 800 to 1600 bar. A light absorption and scattering method using visible and UV light was implemented, and shadow images of liquid and vapor phase fuel were recorded with high-speed video cameras. The cylindrical nozzle N1 yielded larger local vapor cone angles than the convergent nozzles N2 and N3 at both gas densities, and the difference became larger as the injection pressure increased.
Technical Paper

Temperature Oscillations in the Wall of a Cooled Multi Pulsejet Propeller for Aeronautic Propulsion

2016-09-20
2016-01-1998
Environmental and economic issues related to the aeronautic transport, with particular reference to the high-speed one are opening new perspectives to pulsejets and derived pulse detonation engines. Their importance relates to high thrust to weight ratio and low cost of manufacturing with very low energy efficiency. This papers presents a preliminary evaluation in the direction of a new family of pulsejets which can be coupled with both an air compression system which is currently in pre-patenting study and a more efficient and enduring valve systems with respect to today ones. This new pulsejet has bee specifically studied to reach three objectives: a better thermodynamic efficiency, a substantial reduction of vibrations by a multi-chamber cooled architecture, a much longer operative life by more affordable valves. Another objective of this research connects directly to the possibility of feeding the pulsejet with hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of NOx Formation Trends in Biodiesel Combustion using Dynamic ϕ-T Parametric Maps

2011-08-30
2011-01-1929
The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in increased NOx emissions; this presents a barrier to the widespread use of biodiesel. The origins of this phenomenon were investigated using the CFD KIVA3V code, which was modified to account for the physical properties of biodiesel and to incorporate semi-detailed mechanisms for its combustion and the formation of emissions. Parametric φ-T maps and 3D engine simulations were used to assess the impact of using oxygen-containing fuels on the rate of NO formation. It was found that using oxygen-containing fuels allows more O₂ molecules to present in the engine cylinder during the combustion of biodiesel, and this may be the cause of the observed increase in NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaporation of Gasoline-Like and Ethanol-Based Fuels in Hollow-Cone Sprays Investigated by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Mie Scattering

2011-08-30
2011-01-1889
The evaporation of different fuels and fuel components in hollow-cone sprays at conditions similar to those at stratified cold start has been investigated using a combination of planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Ketones of different volatility were used as fluorescent tracers for different fuel components in gasoline-like model fuels and ethanol-based fuels. LIF and Mie images were compared to evaluate to what extent various fuel components had evaporated and obtained a spatial distribution different from that of the liquid drops, as a function of fuel temperature and time after start of injection. A selective and sequential evaporation of fuel components of different volatility was found.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Gasoline and Ethanol Hollow-Cone Sprays Using OpenFOAM

2011-08-30
2011-01-1896
Over the past few years, an open-source code called OpenFOAM has been becoming a promising CFD tool for multi-dimensional numerical simulations of internal combustion engines. The primary goal of the present study is to assess the feasibility of the code for computations of hollow-cone sprays discharged by an outward-opening pintle-type injector by simulating the experiments performed recently by Hemdal et al., (SAE 2009-01-1496) with gasoline and ethanol sprays under the following conditions: air temperature Tair = 295 or 350 K, air pressure pair = 6 bar, fuel temperature Tfuel = 243, or 295, or 320 K, and fuel injection pressure pinj = 50, or 125, or 200 bar. To simulate the experiments, a pintle injector model and the physical properties of gasoline were implemented in OpenFOAM. The flow field calculated using the pintle injector model is more realistic than that yielded by the default unit injector model normally used in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Effects of Varying Engine Settings on Combustion Parameters, Emissions, Soot and Temperature Distributions in Low Temperature Combustion of Fischer-Tropsch and Swedish Diesel Fuels

2009-11-02
2009-01-2787
It has been previously shown that engine-out soot emissions can be reduced by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, due to their lack of aromatics, compared to conventional Diesel fuels. In this investigation the engine-out emissions and fuel consumption parameters of an FT fuel derived from natural gas were compared to those of Swedish low sulfur diesel (MK1) when used in Low Temperature Combustion mode in a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of varying Needle Opening Pressure (NOP), Charge Air Pressure (CAP) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) according to an experimental design on the measured variables were also assessed. CAP and EGR were found to be the most significant factors for the combustion and emission parameters of both fuels. Increases in CAP resulted in lower soot emissions due to enhanced charge mixing, however NOx emissions rose as CAP increased.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

2009-06-15
2009-01-1785
Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

A Novel Concept for Combined Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1946
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - the Influence of Nozzle Parameters on Combustion and Spray Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0841
DME was tested in a heavy duty diesel engine and in an optically accessible high-temperature and pressure spray chamber in order to investigate and understand the effect of nozzle parameters on emissions, combustion and fuel spray concentration. The engine study clearly showed that smaller nozzle orifices were advantageous from combustion, efficiency and emissions considerations. Heat release analysis and fuel concentration images indicate that smaller orifices result in higher mixing rate between fuel and air due to reductions in the turbulence length scale, which reduce both the magnitude of fuel-rich regions and the steepness of fuel gradients in the spray, which enable more fuel to burn and thereby shorten the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - The Influence of Methanol and Water in the Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1391
In the study reported here the combustion and emission characteristics of a heavy duty six-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with dimethyl ether (DME) of chemical grade and DME with small and varying amounts of methanol and/or water were experimentally investigated. In addition, the size distribution of emitted particles and selected unregulated emissions were sampled. Methanol and water additions had a very limited effect on emissions, but affected the combustion processes in a way that accentuated the premixed combustion and thus caused more energy to be released early in the cycle. At high load, however, the effect was reversed, due to the lack of distinct premixed combustion. The results confirm that DME combustion does not generate any accumulation mode particles. The particles that are detected are smaller than the soot size range and do not occur in greater numbers than those from a diesel engine in the corresponding size range.
Technical Paper

Optical Studies of Spray Development and Combustion Characterization of Oxygenated and Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1393
Optical studies of combusting diesel sprays were done on three different alternative liquid fuels and compared to Swedish environmental class 1 diesel fuel (MK1). The alternative fuels were Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester (RME), Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature spray rig under conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct-injected diesel engine prior to injection. High speed shadowgraphs were acquired to measure the penetration of the continuous liquid phase, droplets and ligaments, and vapor penetration. Flame temperatures and relative soot concentrations were measured by emission based, line-of-sight, optical methods. A comparison between previous engine tests and spray rig experiments was conducted in order to provide a deeper explanation of the combustion phenomena in the engine tests.
Journal Article

Multi-hole Injectors for DISI Engines: Nozzle Hole Configuration Influence on Spray Formation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0136
High-pressure multi-hole injectors are one candidate injector type for closed-spaced direct injection (DI) gasoline engines. In such a system, the spark plug must be located close to the spray and, during stratified operation, the spray is ignited very soon after the fuel droplets have been vaporized. Thus there are very high demands on the sprays used in such a system. An additional challenge is the positioning of the spark plug relative to the spray; both consistent ignitability and the absence of liquid fuel droplets must be achieved. Many injector parameters influence spray formation; for example, hole diameter, length to hole diameter ratio, nozzle hole configuration etc. This paper investigates the spray formation and spray induced air movement associated with rotational symmetrical and asymmetrical nozzle hole configurations.
X