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Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions with Reliability Analysis Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1173
The introduction of a physics-based zero-dimensional stochastic reactor model combined with tabulated chemistry enables the simulation-supported development of future compression-ignited engines. The stochastic reactor model mimics mixture and temperature inhomogeneities induced by turbulence, direct injection and heat transfer. Thus, it is possible to improve the prediction of NOx emissions compared to common mean-value models. To reduce the number of designs to be evaluated during the simulation-based multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms are proven to be an effective tool. Based on an initial set of designs, the algorithm aims to evolve the designs to find the best parameters for the given constraints and objectives. The extension by response surface models improves the prediction of the best possible Pareto Front, while the time of optimization is kept low.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Long-Chain Alcohol Blends, HVO and Diesel on Spray Characteristics, Ignition and Soot Formation

2019-01-15
2019-01-0018
Spray characteristics of fossil Diesel fuel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and two oxygenated fuel blends were studied to elucidate the combustion process. The fuels were studied in an optically accessible high-pressure/high-temperature chamber under non-combusting (623 K, 4.69 MPa) and combusting (823 K, 6.04 MPa) conditions. The fuel blends contained the long-chain alcohol 2-ethylhexanol (EH), HVO and either 20 vol.% Diesel or 7 vol.% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and were designed to have a Diesel-like cetane number (CN). Injection pressures were set to 120 MPa and 180 MPa and the gas density was held constant at 26 kg/m3. Under non-combusting conditions, shadow imaging revealed the penetration length of the liquid and vapor phase of the spray. Under combusting conditions, the lift-off length and soot volume fraction were measured by simultaneously recording time-resolved two-dimensional laser extinction, flame luminosity and OH* chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

Methane Direct Injection in an Optical SI Engine - Comparison between Different Combustion Modes

2019-01-15
2019-01-0083
Natural gas, biogas, and biomethane are attractive fuels for compressed natural gas (CNG) engines because of their beneficial physical and chemical characteristics. This paper examines three combustion modes - homogeneous stoichiometric, homogeneous lean burn, and stratified combustion - in an optical single cylinder engine with a gas direct injection system operating with an injection pressure of 18 bar. The combustion process in each mode was characterized by indicated parameters, recording combustion images, and analysing combustion chemiluminescence emission spectra. Pure methane, which is the main component of CNG (up to 98%) or biomethane (> 98 %), was used as the fuel. Chemiluminescence emission spectrum analysis showed that OH* and CN* peaks appeared at their characteristic wavelengths in all three combustion modes. The peak of OH* and broadband CO2* intensities were strongly dependent on the air/fuel ratio conditions in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays Under Fuel Injection Pressures up to 150 MPa with Different Nozzle Geometries

2019-01-15
2019-01-0063
Maximum fuel injection pressures for GDI engines is expected to increase due to positive effects on emissions and engine-efficiency. Current GDI injectors have maximum operating pressures of 35 MPa, but higher injection pressures have yielded promising reductions in particle number (PN) and improved combustion stability. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, and there have been few studies on fuel sprays formed at high injection pressures. This paper summarizes experimental studies on the properties of sprays formed at high injection pressures. The results of these experiments can be used as inputs for CFD simulations and studies on combustion behavior, emissions formation, and combustion system design. The experiments were conducted using an injection rate meter and optical methods in a constant volume spray chamber. Injection rate measurements were performed to determine the injectors’ flow characteristics.
Journal Article

Water Injection Benefits in a 3-Cylinder Downsized SI-Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0034
With progressing electrification of automotive powertrains and demands to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, a combination of an electric motor and downsized turbocharged spark-ignited engine has been recognized as a viable solution. The SI engine must be optimized, and preferentially downsized, to reduce tailpipe CO2 and other emissions. However, drives to increase BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and compression ratio/thermal efficiency increase propensities of knocking (auto-ignition of residual unburnt charge before the propagating flame reaches it) in downsized engines. Currently, knock is mitigated by retarding the ignition timing, but this has several limitations. Another option identified in the last decade (following trials of similar technology in aircraft combustion engines) is water injection, which suppresses knocking largely by reducing local in-cylinder mixture temperatures due to its latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics of Spray Characteristics and Soot Volume Fractions of n-Butanol, n-Octanol, Diesel, and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Blends in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

2019-01-15
2019-01-0019
The effects of using n-butanol, n-octanol, fossil Diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), and blends of these fuels on spray penetration, flame and soot characteristics were investigated in a high-pressure high-temperature constant volume combustion chamber designed to mimic a heavy duty Diesel engine. Backlight illumination was used to capture liquid and vapor phase spray images with a high-speed camera. The flame lift-off length (LOL) and ignition delay were determined by analyzing OH* chemiluminescence images. Laser extinction diagnostics were used to measure the spatially and temporally resolved soot volume fraction. The spray experiments were performed by injecting fuels under non-combusting (623 K) and combusting (823 K) conditions at a fixed ambient air density of 26 kg/m3. A Scania 0.19 mm single straight hole injector and Scania XPI common rail fuel supply system were used to produce injection pressures of 120 MPa and 180 MPa.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate the Compression Ratio in IC Engines with Porous Thermal Barrier Coatings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1778
The compression ratio is an important engine design parameter. It determines to a large extend engine properties like the achievable efficiency, the heat losses from the combustion chamber and the exhaust losses. The same properties are affected by insulation of the combustion chamber. It is therefore especially important to know the compression ratio when doing experiments with thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In case of porous TBCs, the standard methods to measure the compression ratio can give wrong results. When measuring the compression ratio by volume, using a liquid, it is uncertain if the liquid fills the total porous volume of the coating. And for a thermodynamic compression ratio estimation, a model for the heat losses is needed, which is not available when doing experiments with insulation. The subject of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative method to assess the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Controller for a Light Duty Diesel Engine with an LNT-SCR After-Treatment System

2018-09-10
2018-01-1767
Look ahead information can be used to improve the powertrain’s fuel consumption while efficiently controlling exhaust emissions. A passenger car propelled by a Euro 6d capable diesel engine is studied. In the conventional approach, the diesel powertrain subsystem control is rule based. It uses no information of future load requests but is operated with the objective of low engine out exhaust emission species until the Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) light off has occurred, even if fuel economy is compromised greatly. Upon EATS light off, the engine is operated more fuel efficiently since the EATS system is able to treat emissions effectively. This paper presents a supervisory control structure with the intended purpose to operate the complete powertrain using a minimum of fuel while improving the robustness of exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Lean Combustion in a 2lt Gasoline Direct Injected Engine with an Enhanced Turbo Charging System

2018-09-10
2018-01-1670
In the quest for a highly efficient, low emission and affordable source of passenger car propulsion system, meeting future demands for sustainable mobility, the concept of homogeneous lean combustion (HLC) in a spark ignited (SI) multi-cylinder engine has been investigated. An attempt has been made to utilize the concept of HLC in a downsized multi-cylinder production engine producing up to 22 bar BMEP in load. The focus was to cover as much as possible of the real driving operational region, to improve fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions. A standard Volvo two litre four-cylinder gasoline direct injected engine operating on commercial 95 RON gasoline fuel was equipped with an advanced two stage turbo charger system, consisting of a variable nozzle turbine turbo high-pressure stage and a wastegate turbo low-pressure stage. The turbo system was specifically designed to meet the high demands on air mass flow when running lean on higher load and speeds.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Knock Occurrence for Different Fuel Octane Number

2018-09-10
2018-01-1674
Combustion with knock is an abnormal phenomenon which constrains the engine performance, thermal efficiency and longevity. The advance timing of the ignition system requires it to be updated with respect to fuel octane number variation. The production series engines are calibrated by the manufacturer to run with a special fuel octane number. In the experiment, the engine was operated at different speeds, loads, spark advance timings and consumed commercial gasoline with research octane numbers (RON) 95, 97 and 100. A 1-dimensional validated engine combustion model was run in the GT-Power software to simulate the engine conditions required to define the knock envelope at the same engine operation conditions as experiment. The knock intensity investigation due to spark advance sweep shows that combustion with noise was started after a specific advance ignition timing and the audible knock occur by increasing the advance timing.
Technical Paper

Intrinsic Design of Experiments for Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1156
In engine research and development there are often different engine parameters that produce similar effects on the end-point results. When calibrating modern engines, a huge number of parameters needs to be set, which also includes compensation parameters for model imperfections. In this context, simpler, more robust, and physically based models should be beneficial both for calibration work load and powertrain performance. In this study, we present an experimental methodology that uses intermediate (“intrinsic”) variables instead of engine parameters. By using simple thermodynamic models, the engine parameters EGR, IVC, and PBoost could be translated into oxygen concentration, temperature and gas density at the start of injection. The reason for this transformation of data is to “move” the Design of Experiment (DoE) closer to the situation of interest (i.e. the combustion) and to be able to construct simpler and more physically based models.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Cycle and Working Fluid Selection for Waste Heat Recovery in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1371
Thermodynamic power cycles have been shown to provide an excellent method for waste heat recovery (WHR) in internal combustion engines. By capturing and reusing heat that would otherwise be lost to the environment, the efficiency of engines can be increased. This study evaluates the maximum power output of different cycles used for WHR in a heavy duty Diesel engine with a focus on working fluid selection. Typically, only high temperature heat sources are evaluated for WHR in engines, whereas this study also considers the potential of WHR from the coolant. To recover the heat, four types of power cycles were evaluated: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), transcritical Rankine cycle, trilateral flash cycle, and organic flash cycle. This paper allows for a direct comparison of these cycles by simulating all cycles using the same boundary conditions and working fluids.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Stratified Combustion in Spray-guided Direct Injection Spark-ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1420
Stratified combustion in gasoline engines constitutes a promising means of achieving higher thermal efficiency for low to medium engine loads than that achieved with combustion under standard homogeneous conditions. However, creating a charge that leads to a stable efficient low-emission stratified combustion process remains challenging. Combustion through a stratified charge depends strongly on the dynamics of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process and the flame propagation. Predictive simulation tools are required to elucidate this complex mixing and combustion process under stratified conditions. For the simulation of mixing processes, combustion models based on large-eddy turbulence modeling have typically outperformed the standard Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes methods.
Technical Paper

LES Investigation of ECN Spray G2 with an Eulerian Stochastic Field Cavitation Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0291
Due to an ongoing trend of high injection pressures in the realm of internal combustion engines, the role of cavitation that typically happens inside the injector nozzle has become increasingly important. In this work, a large Eddy Simulation (LES) with cavitation modeled on the basis of an Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) method and a homogeneous mixture model is performed to investigate the role of cavitation on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray G2. The Eulerian stochastic field cavitation model is coupled to a pressure based solver for the flow, which lowers the computational cost, thereby making the methodology highly applicable to realistic injector geometries. Moreover, the nature of the Eulerian stochastic field method makes it more convenient to achieve a high scalability when applied to parallel cases, which gives the method the edge over cavitation models that are based on Lagrangian tracking.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Methanol and Diesel Direct Injection HD Single Cylinder Engine Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-0259
Laws concerning emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are needed to satisfy these new requirements and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives can be to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). A suitable candidate is methanol. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate the possible advantages of combusting methanol in a heavy duty Diesel engine. Those are, among others, lower particulate emissions and thereby bypassing the NOx-soot trade-off. Because of methanol’s poor auto-ignition properties, Diesel was used as an igniting sources and both fuels were separately direct injected. Therefore, two separate standard common rail Diesel injection systems were used together with a newly designed cylinder head and adapted injection nozzles.
Technical Paper

Influence of Considering Non-Ideal Thermodynamics on Droplet Evaporation and Spray Formation (for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Conditions) Using VSB2 Spray Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0181
This work utilizes previously developed VSB2 (VSB2 Stochastic Blob and Bubble) multicomponent fuel spray model to study significance of using non-ideal thermodynamics for droplet evaporation under direct injection engine like operating conditions. Non-ideal thermodynamics is used to account for vapor-liquid equilibrium arising from evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets. In specific, the evaporation of ethanol/iso-octane blend is studied in this work. Two compositions of the blend are tested, E-10 and E-85 respectively (the number denotes percentage of ethanol in blend). The VSB2 spray model is implemented into OpenFoam CFD code which is used to study evaporation of the blend in constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid and vapor penetration lengths for the E-10 case are calculated and compared with the experiment. The simulation results show reasonable agreement with the experiment. Simulation is performed with two methods- ideal and non-ideal thermodynamics respectively.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics for Partially Premixed and Conventional Combustion of Butanol and Octanol Isomers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2322
Reducing emissions and improving efficiency are major goals of modern internal combustion engine research. The use of biomass-derived fuels in Diesel engines is an effective way of reducing well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, partially premixed combustion (PPC) makes it possible to achieve very efficient combustion with low emissions of soot and NOx. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using alcohol/Diesel blends or neat alcohols on emissions and thermal efficiency during PPC. Four alcohols were evaluated: n-butanol, isobutanol, n-octanol, and 2-ethylhexanol. The alcohols were blended with fossil Diesel fuel to produce mixtures with low cetane numbers (26-36) suitable for PPC. The blends were then tested in a single cylinder light duty (LD) engine. To optimize combustion, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level, lambda, and injection strategy were tuned.
Journal Article

Performance Studies and Correlation between Vehicle- and Rapid- Aged Commercial Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0940
Even though substantial improvements have been made for the lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst in recent years, the durability still remains problematic because of the sulfur poisoning and sintering of the precious metals at high operating temperatures. Hence, commercial LNT catalysts were aged and tested in order to investigate their performance and activity degradation compared to the fresh catalyst, and establish a proper correlation between the aging methods used. The target of this study is to provide useful information for regeneration strategies and optimize the catalyst management for better performance and durability. With this goal in mind, two different aging procedures were implemented in this investigation. A catalyst was vehicle-aged in the vehicle chassis dynamometer for 100000 km, thus exposed to real conditions. Whereas, an accelerated aging method was used by subjecting a fresh LNT catalyst at 800 °C for 24 hours in an oven under controlled conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling n-dodecane Spray Combustion with a Representative Interactive Linear Eddy Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0571
Many new combustion concepts are currently being investigated to further improve engines in terms of both efficiency and emissions. Examples include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), lean stratified premixed combustion, stratified charge compression ignition (SCCI), and high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines, known as low temperature combustion (LTC). All of these combustion concepts have in common that the temperatures are lower than in traditional spark ignition or diesel engines. To further improve and develop combustion concepts for clean and highly efficient engines, it is necessary to develop new computational tools that can be used to describe and optimize processes in nonstandard conditions, such as low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
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