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Technical Paper

Simplifications Applied to Simulation of Turbulence Induced by a Side View Mirror of a Full-Scale Truck Using DES

2018-04-03
2018-01-0708
In this paper, the turbulent flow induced by a production side-view mirror assembled on a full-scale production truck is simulated using a compressible k-ω SST detached eddy simulation (DES) approach -- the improved delayed DES (IDDES). The truck configuration consists of a compartment and a trailer. Due to the large size and geometric complexity of the configuration, some simplifications are applied to the simulation. A purpose of this work is to investigate whether the simplifications are suitable to obtain the reasonable properties of the flow near the side-view mirror. Another objective is to study the aerodynamic performances of the mirror. The configuration is simplified regarding two treatments. The first treatment is to retain the key exterior components of the truck body while removing the small gaps and structures. Furthermore, the trailer is shaped in an apex-truncated square pyramid.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Front and Rear Wheel Designs on Aerodynamic Drag of a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-0165
Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

A Novel Concept for Combined Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1946
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ultra-High Injection Pressure on Diesel Ignition and Flame under High-Boost Conditions

2008-06-23
2008-01-1603
In this work, we conducted three-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the effect of ultra-high injection pressure on diesel ignition and flame under high-boost and medium-load conditions. Three injection cases employed in experiments with a multi-cylinder Volvo D12 engine were applied for validation. The simulations were performed using the KIVA-3V code, with a Kelvin-Helmholz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH/RT) spray breakup model and a diesel surrogate mechanism involving 83 species and 445 reactions. A range of higher injection pressure levels were projected and the injection rates estimated for the current study. Three different rate shapes of injection were projected and investigated as well. All the projected injection events start at top dead center (TDC). Computations demonstrate that high-pressure injection strongly affects engine ignition and combustion.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0564
To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

It's in the Eye of the Beholder: Who Should be the User of Computer Manikin Tools?

2003-06-17
2003-01-2196
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of computer manikin users' background and knowledge for the results of a computer manikin simulation. Subjects taking part in the study were either production engineers or ergonomists. A manual task that presented production and ergonomics problems was used. The task was simulated prior to the subjects' sessions, using the computer manikin software Jack. During the sessions, the animated simulation was shown to the test subject. Results show that there are differences in how production engineers and ergonomists interpret results from a manikin simulation. Depending on the user's background, certain aspects that are difficult to visualise with the computer manikin were interpreted differently, regarding e.g. detected problems and holistic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Sulphur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Trap Catalyst for Direct Injected Gasoline Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3504
Sulphur poisoning and regeneration of NOx trap catalysts have been studied in synthetic exhausts and in an engine bench. Sulphur gradually poisoned the NOx storage sites in the axial direction of the NOx trap. During sulphur regenerations, hydrogen was found to be more efficient than carbon monoxide in removing the sulphur from the trap. The sulphur regeneration became more efficient the richer the environment (λ<1) and the higher the temperature (at least 600°C). H2S was found to be the main product during the sulphur regeneration. However, it was possible to reduce the H2S formation and instead produce more SO2 by running with lambda close to one or by pulsing lambda. Even if a relatively large amount of sulphur was removed from the NOx trap, these methods gave a much less efficient regeneration per sulphur atom removed than when running relatively rich constantly. Finally, a model that could explain this observation was proposed.
Technical Paper

Rear-End Collisions - A Study of the Influence of Backrest Properties on Head-Neck Motion using a New Dummy Neck

1993-03-01
930343
Neck injuries in rear-end collisions are usually caused by a swift extension-flexion motion of the neck and mostly occur at low impact velocities (typically less than 20 km/h). Although the injuries are classified as AIS 1, they often lead to permanent disability. The injury risk varies a great deal between different car models. Epidemiological studies show that the effectiveness of passenger-car head-restraints in rear-end collisions generally remains poor. Rear-end collisions were simulated on a crash-sled by means of a Hybrid III dummy with a new neck (Rear Impact Dummy-neck). Seats were chosen from production car models. Differences in head-neck kinematics and kinetics between the different seats were observed at velocity changes of 5 and 12.5 km/h. Comparisons were made with an unmodified Hybrid III. The results show that the head-neck motion is influenced by the stiffness and elasticity of the backrest as well as by the properties of the head-restraint.
Technical Paper

Inertia Collection Applied to Vehicle Emissions

1989-09-01
892092
The INCOLL or INertia COLLection system described in this paper, should meet the requirements for a short transient test, without using any chassis dynamometer. To prove this point not only the background of its principles are described, but also results from its application both to S I engines with and without catalytic converters and to truck diesel engines. Special interest has been devoted to the oxygen sensor and converter efficiency and their response both during warm up and under transient conditions. The simplification of the analyzing equipment and the direct interpretation of the results, have been dealt with, as well as the repeativity of the results achieved. The INCOLL test may also have a potential use as quality test at the end of the production line and as a tool for reliability development as well as research and development within the field. The cost for an INCOLL test is estimated to be around one (1) percent of a normal FTP certification procedure.
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