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Technical Paper

Emission Formation Study of HCCI Combustion with Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

HCCI combustion can be enabled by many types of liquid and gaseous fuels. When considering what fuels will be most suitable, the emissions also have to be taken into account. This study focuses on the emissions formation originating from different fuel components. A systematic study of over 40 different gasoline surrogate fuels was made. All fuels were studied in a CFR engine running in HCCI operation. Many of the fuels were blended to achieve similar RON's and MON's as gasoline fuels, and the components (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol) were chosen to represent the most important in gasoline; nparaffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics and oxygenates. The inlet air temperature was varied from 50°C to 150°C to study the effects on the emissions. The compression ratio was adjusted for each operating point to achieve combustion 3 degrees after TDC. The engine was run at an engine speed of 600 rpm, with ambient intake air pressure and with an equivalence ratio of 0.33.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensitivity of HCCI Auto-Ignition Temperature for Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

An index to relate fuel properties to HCCI auto-ignition would be valuable to predict the performance of fuels in HCCI engines from their properties and composition. The indices for SI engines, the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are known to be insufficient to explain the behavior of oxygenated fuels in an HCCI engine. One way to characterize a fuel is to use the Auto-Ignition Temperature (AIT). The AIT can be extracted from the pressure trace. Another potentially interesting parameter is the amount of Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) that is closely connected to the ignition properties of the fuel. A systematic study of fuels consisting of gasoline surrogate components of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol was made. 21 fuels were prepared with RON values ranging from 67 to 97.
Journal Article

Understanding Knock Metric for Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

The knock metric for controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engines is assessed by considering the physical processes that establish the pressure wave that contributes to the acoustic radiation of the engine, and by analyzing pressure data from a CAI engine. Data sets from the engine operating with port fuel injection, early direct injection and late direct injection are used to monitor the effect of mixture composition stratification. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the local pressure rise produced by heat release has to be discounted by the work spent in acoustic expansion against the ambient pressure to properly predict the pressure wave amplitude. Based on this analysis, a modified correlation between the pressure wave amplitude and the maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) is developed by introducing an MPRR offset to account for the expansion work.
Journal Article

Boosted HCCI Combustion Using Low-Octane Gasoline with Fully Premixed and Partially Stratified Charges

High-load HCCI combustion has recently been demonstrated with conventional gasoline using intake pressure boosting. The key is to control the high combustion heat release rates (HRR) by using combustion timing retard and mixture stratification. However, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions, these techniques did not work well due to the low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. This work studies a low-octane distillate fuel with similar volatility to gasoline, termed Hydrobate, for its potential in HCCI engine combustion at naturally aspirated and low-range boosted conditions. The HCCI combustion with fully premixed and partially stratified charges was examined at intake pressures (Pin) from 100 to 180 kPa and constant intake temperature (60°C) and engine speed (1200 rpm).