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Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Journal Article

Transient Thermal Modeling of Power Train Components

This paper discusses simplified lumped parameter thermal modeling of power train components. In particular, it discusses the tradeoff between model complexity and the ability to correlate the predicted temperatures and flow rates with measured data. The benefits and problems associated with using a three lumped mass model are explained and the value of this simpler model is promoted. The process for correlation and optimization using modern software tools is explained. Examples of models for engines and transmissions are illustrated along with their predictive abilities over typical driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Application of Design and Development Techniques for Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

Gasoline direct injection technology is receiving increased attention among automotive engineers due to its high potential to reach future emission and fuel economy goals. This paper reports some of the design and development techniques in use at Chrysler as applied to four-stroke Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engines. The spray characteristics of Chrysler's single-fluid high-pressure injector are reported. Tools used in the design process are identified. Observations of the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process using laser diagnostic techniques and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are described. Finally, combustion and emissions characteristics using Design of Experiment (DoE) tests are presented.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management of Hydraulic Fluids and Lubricant Oils at Chrysler

A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
Technical Paper

The Car as a Peripheral, Adapting a Portable Computer to a Vehicle Intranet

This paper discusses the feasibility and issues associated with integrating a consumer off-the shelf product into a vehicle. For this evaluation, we selected a handheld personal computer (HPC), cellular telephone and modem to integrate with the vehicle audio, climate and system controls. Connectivity between the HPC and the vehicle is established by the use of the standard infrared serial data link that comes with the HPC. Connectivity outside the vehicle uses a cellular telephone for voice and a cellular digital packet data (CDPD) modem for data. This system is built into the Dodge ESX-2 hybrid powered concept vehicle for demonstration.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

Advancements in RRIM Fascia Application Provide Cost Competitiveness While Meeting Performance Requirements

The commercial validation of a optimized RRIM polyurethane substrate with a novel barrier coat for fascia applications is reviewed which creates cost competitiveness to thermoplastic olefins (TPO), without sacrificing performance. Meeting fascia performance requirements with thinner and lighter RRIM materials containing recyclate and the subsequent application of a barrier coat eliminating the traditional primecoat cycle was investigated.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

Fuel Mixture Temperature Variations in the Intake Port

Temperature variation and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially during the warm up period. Cold temperatures in the intake port result in a large amount of liquid-fuel film. Since the liquid-fuel film responds at a slower speed than the gas-phase flow during transient operations, the liquid-fuel film acts as a fuel sink (or source) and can degrade the vehicle's driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control. In this work, a one-dimensional, unsteady, multicomponent, multiphase flow model has been developed to study the mixture formation process in the intake port for a modern, multipoint-fuel-injection, gasoline engine. The droplet, liquid film and gas-phase mixture temperature variations and the effects of charge air, initial fuel and port wall temperatures involved in generating the air-fuel mixture are examined.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Road Noise Modelling Using Statistical Energy Analysis Method

A mathematical model was developed to evaluate design options for control of road noise transmission into the interior of a passenger car. Both air-borne and structure-borne road noise over the frequency range of 200-5000 Hz was able to be considered using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Acoustic and vibration measurements conducted on a laboratory rolling road were used to represent the tire noise “source” functions. The SEA model was correlated to in car sound pressure level measurements to within 2-4 db accuracy, and showed that airborne noise dominated structure-borne noise sources above 400 Hz. The effectiveness of different noise control treatments was simulated and in some cases evaluated with tests.
Technical Paper

Assessing Design Concepts for NVH Using HYFEX (Hybrid Finite Element/Experimental) Modeling

This paper outlines several methodologies which use finite element and experimental models to predict vehicle NVH responses. Trimmed body experimental modal subsystem models are incorporated into the finite element system model to evaluate engine mounting systems for low frequency vibration problems. Higher frequency noise issues related to road input are evaluated using experimentally derived acoustic transfer functions combined with finite element subsystem model responses. Specific examples of system models built to simulate idle shake and road noise are given. Applications to engine mounting, suspension design, and body structure criteria are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rubber-Like Headform Skin Model for Predicting the Head Injury Criterion (HIC)

This paper describes the development of a rubber-like skin Finite Elements Model (FEM) for the Hybrid III headform and an experimental method to determine its material properties. The finite element modeling procedures, using material parameters derived from tests conducted on the headform skin (rubber) material, are described. Dynamic responses and computations of HIC using the developed headform model show that an Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (EPH) material model of the rubber can be used for headform impact simulations. The results obtained from the headform simulation using an EPH rubber material model and drop tower tests of the headform on both a rigid and a deformable structure will be compared, in order to show the applicability of the EPH model.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computer Simulation Analysis of Transients on an Automobile Communication Bus

Voltage and current surges are a major concern when it comes to ensuring the functional integrity of electrical and electronic components and modules in an automobile system. This paper presents a computer simulation study for analyzing the effect of high voltage spikes and current load dump on a new Integrated Driver/Receiver (IDR) IC, currently being developed for a J1850 Data Communication Bus in an automobile. It describes the modeling and simulation of the protection structure proposed for the device. The simulation study yields a prediction of current and voltage capability of the protection circuit based on thermal breakdown and transient responses of the circuit. Two levels of modeling, namely, the behavioral level model and the component level model, are used to generate the simulation results. Experimental data will be acquired and used to validate the simulation model when the actual device becomes available.
Technical Paper

OPNET J1850 Network Simulator

MIL 3's OPNET simulator was used to model Chrysler's J1850 bus. Modeled were both J1850 bus characteristics and those portions of control modules (e.g., the engine controller) which communicate on the bus. Current Chrysler control module algorithms and proposed Chrysler J1850 message formats were used to design the control module models. The control module models include all messages which are transmitted at fixed intervals over the J1850 bus. The effects of function-based messages (e.g., messages to be transmitted on a particular sensor or push-button reading) on system load were investigated by transmitting an additional message with a fixed, relatively high priority at 50 millisecond intervals.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Multiphase Fuel-Flow in the Intake Port

Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Technical Paper

Validation of Computational Vehicle Windshield De-Icing Process

This study is a joint development project between Chrysler Corporation and CFD Research Corporation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a 3D computational flow and heat transfer model for a vehicle windshield de-icing process. The windshield clearing process is a 3D transient, multi-medium, multi-phase heat exchange phenomenon in connection with the air flow distribution in the passenger compartment. The transient windshield de-icing analysis employed conjugate heat transfer methodology and enthalpy method to simulate the velocity distribution near the windshield inside surface, and the time progression of ice-melting pattern on the windshield outside surface. The comparison between the computed results and measured data showed very reasonable agreement, which demonstrated that the developed analysis tool is capable of simulating the vehicle cold room de-icing tests.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction in Sheet Forming Simulation

Although numerical simulation techniques for sheet metal forming become increasingly maturing in recent years, prediction of springback remains a topic of current investigation. The main point of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of a modelling approach where static implicit schemes are used for the prediction of springback regardless whether a static implicit or dynamic explicit scheme is used in the forming simulation. The approach is demonstrated by revisiting the 2-D draw bending of NUMISHEET'93 and numerical results on two real world stampings.