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Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Automotive Vehicle Body Temperature Prediction in a Paint Oven

2014-04-01
2014-01-0644
Automotive vehicle body electrophoretic (e-coat) and paint application has a high degree of complexity and expense in vehicle assembly. These steps involve coating and painting the vehicle body. Each step has multiple coatings and a curing process of the body in an oven. Two types of heating methods, radiation and convection, are used in the ovens to cure coatings and paints during the process. During heating stage in the oven, the vehicle body has large thermal stresses due to thermal expansion. These stresses may cause permanent deformation and weld/joint failure. Body panel deformation and joint failure can be predicted by using structural analysis with component surface temperature distribution. The prediction will avoid late and costly changes to the vehicle design. The temperature profiles on the vehicle components are the key boundary conditions used to perform structure analysis.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Predict Thermal Buckling in Automotive Body Panels by Coupling Heat Transfer and Structural Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0943
This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
Technical Paper

DC Charging and Standards for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1475
This paper is the fourth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force. - The initial paper (2010-01-0837) introduced utility communications (J2836/1™ & J2847/1) and how the SAE task force interfaced with other organizations. - The second paper (2011-01-0866) focused on the next steps of the utility requirements and added DC charging (J2836/2™ & J2847/2) along with initial effort for Reverse Power Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3). - The third paper (2012-01-1036) summarized the task force documents and interaction. It also included the continued testing of PowerLine Carrier (PLC) products for Utility and DC charging messages using Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRI) test plan and schedule that were used at EPRI and Argonne National Labs (ANL).
Technical Paper

Battery Development for Stop-Start Application in Brazilian Market

2013-04-08
2013-01-1526
There is a growing worldwide concern regarding the environmental aspects related to the performance of a corporation and its products, whether by consumer demand or government requirements. The constant pressure for innovations and improvements related to sustainable development are current issues in everyday life of any institution that seeks to consolidate a position of acceptance and competitiveness in the global market. The automotive industry is one of the markets more involved and challenged to the demand of the environmental requirements in regards the limits of pollutant emissions and consequently fuel consumption. The European and North America vehicles already have more electrical content inside (either related to safety and comfort or even needs related to weather), which results in significantly higher consumption levels than traditionally observed in Brazil's application.
Technical Paper

Application of Modeling Technology in a Turbocharged SI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1621
Improvements to 1D engine modeling accuracy and computational speed have led to greater reliance on this simulation technology during the engine development process. The benefits of modeling show up in many ways: increased simulation iterations for better optimization, reduction in prototype hardware iterations, reduction in program timing and overall cost. In this study a 1D GT-Power model of a turbocharged engine system was used to assist in the initial design phase and throughout the program. The model was developed using Chrysler Group LLC proprietary modeling features for predictive combustion and knock event prediction. In all stages of this project the model's accuracy was improved through regular correlation with dynamometer data. This paper mainly focuses on engine compression ratio selection, turbocharger selection, and cycle-to-cycle variation/cylinder-to-cylinder variation reduction through the combination of 1D GT-Power model optimization and dynamometer tests.
Technical Paper

Calibrating an Adaptive Pivoting Vane Pump to Deliver a Stepped Pressure Profile

2013-04-08
2013-01-1729
This paper presents a process for the selection of spring rate and pre-load for an adaptively controlled pivoting vane oil pump. The pivoting vane pump has two modes: high and low speed. A spring within the pump is installed to induce a torque that causes an adaptive displacement mechanism within the pump to move toward maximum oil chamber size. In low speed mode, two feedback regions are pressurized that produce torques that counter the spring generated torque. Together, both regions being pressurized by main oil gallery pressure tend to reduce pump displacement more at lower speeds than if only a single chamber is pressurized. At higher speeds, a solenoid switch turns off pressure to one of the feedback pressure chambers, thereby reducing feedback torque that counters spring torque. This enables higher pressure calibrations in this speed mode. In this paper, we identify a process for choosing the spring rate and pre-load that calibrates the adaptive displacement mechanism.
Technical Paper

The New Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process in Engine Design and Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1720
Due to new federal regulations and higher environmental awareness, the market demands for high fuel economy and low exhaust emission engines are increasing. At the same time customer demands for engine performance, NVH and reliability are also increasing. It is a challenge for engineers to design an engine to meet all requirements with less development time. Currently, the new engine development time has been trimmed in order to introduce more products to the market. Utilizing CAE technology and processes in an engine development cycle can enable engineers to satisfy all requirements in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper describes a new Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process which has been successfully implemented into Chrysler PTCP (Powertrain Creation Process) and effectively utilized to shorten and improve the product development process. This new virtual analysis process guides the product development from concept through the production validation phases.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

2013-04-08
2013-01-1775
The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Journal Article

Statistical Considerations for Evaluating Biofidelity, Repeatability, and Reproducibility of ATDs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1249
Reliable testing of a mechanical system requires the procedures used for the evaluation to be repeatable and reproducible. However, it is never possible to exactly repeat or reproduce the tests that are used for evaluation. To overcome this limitation, a statistical evaluation procedure can generally be used. However, most of the statistical procedures use scalar values as input without the ability to handle vectors or time-histories. To overcome these limitations, two numerical/statistical methods for determining if the impact time-history response of a mechanical system is repeatable or reproducible are evaluated and elaborated upon. Such a system could be a vehicle, a biological human surrogate, an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD or dummy), etc. The responses could be sets of time-histories of accelerations, forces, moments, etc., of a component or of the system. The example system evaluated is the BioRID II rear impact dummy.
Journal Article

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for FWD-Based Power Transfer Units

2013-04-08
2013-01-0361
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of efficiency on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently and provides data to make comparisons. In addition, the procedure offers a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. Previous published studies have outlined the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This paper will take the same basic approach for the Power Transfer Units (PTUs) used on Front Wheel Drive (FWD) based All Wheel Drive (AWD) vehicles. Factors included in the assessment include single and multi-stage PTUs, fluid levels, break-in process, and temperature effects.
Journal Article

Assessing the Propensity for Valve Train Tick Noise

2013-04-08
2013-01-1737
Valve ticking noises within a cam actuated valve train can arise mysteriously. One valve train may produce valve ticking noises, while a second, geometrically similar valve train may perform more quietly. To better understand this phenomena, we examine in detail the prototypical motion of a valve driven by a rocker arm with cylindrical rocker pad. General features of a valve's motion through its guide, induced by a rocker arm with a cylindrical pad, are derived. From these general features of valve motion, guide contact points during lift events can be inferred, and as a result, detailed forces and moments acting on the valve may be derived. From this derivation of forces acting on the valve, a metric for assessing the propensity of a valve train to tick as a result of the valve stem impacting its guide is proposed. The proposed metric indicates how the likelihood of valve tick noise can be reduced through judicious choices for valve train geometries, clearances and surface finishes.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Technical Paper

Windage Tray Design Comparison Using Crankcase Breathing Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0580
The conflicting requirements of better fuel economy, higher performance and lower emissions from an automobile engine have brought many new challenges that require development teams to look beyond conventional test and seek answers from simulations. One of the relatively unexplored areas of development where frictional losses haven't been completely understood is the flow in the crankcase. Here computational engineering can play a significant role in analyzing flow field in a hidden and complex region where otherwise testing has serious limitations. Flow simulation in the crankcase poses significant complexity and provides an opportunity to enhance the understanding of underlying physics by using multi-physics analyses tools available commercially. In this study, air space under the piston and above the oil level in oil pan is simulated. It is known that bay-to-bay breathing and windage holes account for considerable amount of power losses in the crankcase.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Modeling Method and Testing Procedures to Aid in the Design of Cardan Joints for Front Steerable Beam Axles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0819
The Cardan joint of a steerable beam front axle is a complicated mechanical component. It is subjected to drive torque, speed fluctuations, and joint articulation due to powertrain inputs, steering, and suspension kinematics. This combination of high torque and speed fluctuations of the Cardan joint, due to high input drive torque and/or high steer angle maneuvers, can result in premature joint wear. Initially, some observations of premature wear were not well understood based on the existing laboratory and road test data. The present work summarizes a coordinated program of computer modeling, vehicle Rough Road data acquisition, and physical testing used to predict the joint dynamics and to develop advanced testing procedures. Results indicate analytical modeling can predict forces resulting from Cardan joint dynamics for high torque/high turn angle maneuvers, as represented by time history traces recorded in rough road data acquisition.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

A New Method of d'Alembert's Principle Finite Element Based Fatigue Calculation with Input of Loads and Accelerations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1003
The common practice in finite element based fatigue calculation with multiple channels of road load is to perform a set of unit load static stress analysis and conduct stress time history construction later during fatigue calculation. The main advantage of this so-called quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is to avoid time-consuming dynamic stress analysis and also reduce static stress analysis from millions of real load cases to a few dozens unit-load cases. The main disadvantage of this quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is the absence of vibration-induced stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue analysis. A decade ago, a modal transient finite element based fatigue calculation was proposed to introduce vibration-induced stresses into finite element based fatigue calculation. The idea is to add vibration-induced modal stresses to load-induced instant stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue calculation.
Technical Paper

Alternative to Hydrogen/Helium as Flame Ionization Detector Fuel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1045
Flame ionization detector (FID) analyzers used in emission testing to measure total hydrocarbon emissions have been operating for the last forty years on a fuel mixture of 40% H₂ and 60% helium. These mixtures were selected based on research studies reported in the literature indicating that this particular mixed fuel combination gave the best sensitivity and relative response of the different hydrocarbons present in vehicle exhaust with respect to propane, the calibration gas. During the past few years, it was announced that there is a worldwide shortage of helium which triggered the automotive industry to look for alternatives for helium to be used in FID fuels. Helium which is produced as a byproduct from natural gas fields is non-renewable, expensive, and extremely rare on the earth. Current supply cannot keep up with demand. There are only few natural gas fields producing helium and unless new natural gas fields are found, current helium amounts will continue to dwindle.
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