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Technical Paper

Need for a Robust Asset Management Business Algorithm

2014-04-01
2014-01-0783
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act created new standards for corporate accountability pertaining to all publicly-owned and traded firms. It holds top executives accountable for the accuracy of all financial data and statements, including reported tangible assets. It requires existence of auditable internal accounting control measures and specifies adherence to new internal controls and procedures designed to ensure the validity of their financial records and physical assets. The Act presents a challenge to every manufacturing firm to have a low-cost system implemented that can produce an exact physical-asset location, existence, verification and accounting on demand. Clearly, such low-cost solutions for enterprise-wide compliance would also provide verifiable and reliable data for corporate property tax, loan collateral, and audit requirements.
Journal Article

The Electric Fan as a Cooling Package Air Flow Meter

2012-04-16
2012-01-0954
A D.C. permanent magnet motor powered fan can serve as a cooling package air flow meter. This allows for continuous air flow monitoring during vehicle operation with applications to more precise air flow control schemes. In the freewheel mode, the air flow is a linear function of the open circuit voltage of the motor. In the powered mode, the motor voltage and current can be used with a motor and fan model to predict fan air flow. The model is explained and verifying test results are presented. Comparison of the accuracy and complexity vs. that of arrays of precision anemometers is provided.
Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Technical Paper

FEA Simulation of Induction Hardening and Residual Stress of Auto Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-0418
The paper studies the distributions of residual stresses in auto components after induction hardening. Three prototype parts are analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature fields of the analyzed parts are quantitatively simulated during quenching by simulating surface heating to the austenitization temperature of the material. Secondly, the formation and states of the residual stresses are predicted. Therefore the distribution of residual stress is simulated and shows compressive stresses on the surface of components so that the strength can be improved. The simulated results by computer are compared with experimental results. The good comparison indicates that the results obtained by the FEA analysis are reliable. Thus, it can be concluded that the FEA (Finite element analysis) program is effectively developed to simulate heating and quenching processes and residual stresses distribution.
Journal Article

Safety Analysis of Software-intensive Motion Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0756
The auto industry has had decades of experience with designing safe vehicles. The introduction of highly integrated features brings new challenges that require innovative adaptations of existing safety methodologies and perhaps even some completely new concepts. In this paper, we describe some of the new challenges that will be faced by all OEMs and suppliers. We also describe a set of generic top-level potential hazards that can be used as a starting point for the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of a vehicle software-intensive motion control system. Based on our experience with the safety analysis of a system of this kind, we describe some general categories of hazard causes that are considered for software-intensive systems and can be used systematically in developing the PHA.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Transmission Torque Utilizing the Lever Analogy

2009-04-20
2009-01-1137
This paper presents methods for analyzing and visualizing the relationship between input torque, clutch torque, output torque and input acceleration during the inertia phase of a shift. The methods presented are an expansion of the lever analogy [1]. The methods are useful for understanding how geartrain inertia affects control, both its magnitude and distribution. Clutch energy and shift speeds are also easy to calculate and understand using the tools presented. Lastly the methods show why the optimum control strategies for various transmission configurations (such as DCT's, planetary transmissions, etc.) are different in the inertia phase.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Impacts: 2D Numerical Study

2008-04-14
2008-01-0506
A 2D model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact analysis that was presented in an earlier paper [1], has been used to study several two-vehicle frontal impacts with different incidence angles, frontal overlap offsets, and mass ratios. The impacts have been evaluated in terms of energy and momentum change in the bullet vehicle and the target vehicle. Based on comparisons between pre- and post-impact longitudinal, lateral, and angular components of kinetic energy, and linear and angular momenta, the impacts experienced by the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle have been classified as collinear or oblique. These results have been used to propose a definition of frontal impact based on vehicle kinematics during a crash.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Structural Optimization of an Automotive Body-In-White Design

2008-04-14
2008-01-0880
A process for simultaneously optimizing the mechanical performance and minimizing the weight of an automotive body-in-white will be developed herein. The process begins with appropriate load path definition though calculation of an optimized topology. Load paths are then converted to sheet metal, and initial critical cross sections are sized and shaped based on packaging, engineering judgment, and stress and stiffness approximations. As a general direction of design, section requirements are based on an overall vehicle “design for stiffness first” philosophy. Design for impact and durability requirements, which generally call for strength rather than stiffness, are then addressed by judicious application of the most recently developed automotive grade advanced high strength steels. Sheet metal gages, including tailored blanks design, are selected via experience and topometry optimization studies.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Brake Apply System Response and Aero-Acoustic Performance Considerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0821
Over the past decade, the automotive industry has seen a rapid decrease in product development cycle time and an ever increasing need by original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers to differentiate themselves in the marketplace. This differentiation is increasingly accomplished by introducing new technology while continually improving the performance of existing automotive systems. In the area of automotive brake system design, and, in particular, the brake apply subsystem, an increased focus has been placed on the development of electrohydraulic apply systems and brake-by-wire systems to replace traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Nevertheless, the traditional brake apply systems, especially vacuum-based or pneumatic systems, will continue to represent the majority of brake apply system production volume into the foreseeable future, which underscores the need to improve the performance and application of these traditional systems in passenger cars and light-trucks.
Technical Paper

Interpretation of Time-Frequency Distribution Cross Terms

2008-04-14
2008-01-0270
Noise and vibration signals which are stationary are frequently analyzed for frequency content using Fourier Transform methods. Frequency content can be clearly displayed, but temporal characteristics of signals can easily be obscured in a frequency spectrum. Several commonly available methods of analyzing nonstationary signals are available, such as short-time Fourier Transform and wavelet analysis. Smearing of data in the time and/or frequency domains leads to limited usefulness of these methods in analyzing rapidly varying signals. This also applies to stationary signals with perceivable temporal characteristics. The Wigner Distribution is a time-frequency analysis which can analyze rapidly varying signals and show the effects of rapid changes in signal characteristics. It is appealing because it fully preserves all the information present in the original signal.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0417
Since 2000, an Aluminum Cosmetic Corrosion task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has existed. The task group has pursued the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. A cooperative program uniting OEM, supplier, and consultants has been created and has been supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to this committee's formation, numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels. However, correlations between these laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. Thus, the primary objective of this task group's project was to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates well with in-service performance.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Moving Mesh CFD Study of Semi-truck Passing a Stationary Vehicle with Hood Open

2007-04-16
2007-01-0111
This paper examines the aerodynamic forces on the open hood of a stationary vehicle when another large vehicle, such as an 18-wheel semi-truck, passes by at high speed. The problem of semi-truck passing a parked car with hood open is solved as a transient two-vehicle aerodynamics problem with a Dynamic Moving Mesh (DMM) capability in commercial CFD software package FLUENT. To assess the computational feasibility, a simplified compact car / semi-truck geometry and CFD meshes are used in the first trial example. At 70 mph semi-truck speed, the CFD results indicate a peak aerodynamic force level of 20N to 30N on the hood of the car, and the direction of the net forces and moments on the hood change multiple times during the passing event.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Managing Vehicle Mass throughout the Development Process and Vehicle Lifecycle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1721
Managing (minimizing and optimizing) the total mass of a vehicle is recognized as a critical task during the development of a new vehicle, as well as throughout its production lifecycle. This paper summarizes a literature review of, and investigation into, the strategies, methods and best practices for achieving low total mass in new vehicle programs, and/or mass reductions in existing production vehicle programs. Empirical and quantitative data and examples from the automotive manufacturers and suppliers are also provided in support of the material presented.
Technical Paper

From Algorithms to Software - A Practical Approach to Model-Driven Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1622
The value of model-based design has been attempted to be communicated for more than a decade. As methods and tools have appeared and disappeared from a series of different vendors it has become apparent that no single vendor has a solution that meets all users’ needs. Recently standards (UML, MDA, MOF, EMF, etc.) have become a dominant force and an alternative to vendor-specific languages and processes. Where these standards have succeeded and vendors have failed is in the realization that they do not provide the answer, but instead provide the foundation to develop the answer. It is in the utilization of these standards and their capability to be customized that companies have achieved success. Customization has occurred to fit organizations, processes, and architectures that leverage the value of model-driven design.
Technical Paper

Power-Based Noise Reduction Concept and Measurement Techniques

2005-05-16
2005-01-2401
This paper presents a Power-Based Noise Reduction (PBNR) concept and uses PBNR to set vehicle acoustic specifications for sound package design. This paper starts with the PBNR definition and describes the correct measurement techniques. This paper also derives the asymptotic relationships among PBNR, conventional noise reduction (NR), and sound transmission loss, for a simple case consisting of the source, path, and receiver subsystems. The advantages of using PBNR over conventional Noise Reduction (NR) are finally demonstrated in vehicle measurement examples.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Exterior Sound Fields by High Frequency Boundary Element Method

2005-05-16
2005-01-2328
With Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proven to be a powerful tool for airborne noise analysis, the capability of predicting the exterior sound field around a vehicle at high frequencies (the load case in the SEA analysis) is of particular interest to OEMs and suppliers. This paper employs the High Frequency Boundary Element Method (HFBEM) to simulate the scattered exterior sound field distribution due to a monopole source. It is shown that the proposed method is able to efficiently predict the spatial and frequency averaged sound pressure levels reasonably well up to 10 kHz, even at points in the near field of the vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Study of Staircase Fatigue Tests Using Monte Carlo Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0803
The staircase fatigue test method is a well-established, but poorly understood probe for determining fatigue strength mean and standard deviation. The sensitivity of results to underlying distributions was studied using Monte Carlo simulation by repeatedly sampling known distributions of hypothetical fatigue strength data with the staircase test method. In this paper, the effects of the underlying distribution on staircase test results are presented with emphasis on original normal, lognormal, Weibull and bimodal data. The results indicate that the mean fatigue strength determined by the staircase testing protocol is largely unaffected by the underlying distribution, but the standard deviation is not. Suggestions for conducting staircase tests are provided.
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