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Journal Article

A New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

2013-04-08
2013-01-0850
Accurate evaluation of vehicles' transient total power requirement helps achieving further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency. When operated, the air-conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle, therefore accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation models, such as "Autonomie," have been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. However, the load from the A/C system on the engine or on the energy storage system has not always been modeled in sufficient detail. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink® is frequently used by vehicle controls engineers to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls.
Journal Article

The Electric Fan as a Cooling Package Air Flow Meter

2012-04-16
2012-01-0954
A D.C. permanent magnet motor powered fan can serve as a cooling package air flow meter. This allows for continuous air flow monitoring during vehicle operation with applications to more precise air flow control schemes. In the freewheel mode, the air flow is a linear function of the open circuit voltage of the motor. In the powered mode, the motor voltage and current can be used with a motor and fan model to predict fan air flow. The model is explained and verifying test results are presented. Comparison of the accuracy and complexity vs. that of arrays of precision anemometers is provided.
Technical Paper

Autoignition Characteristics of Primary Reference Fuels and their Mixtures

2009-11-02
2009-01-2624
This study investigates the autoignition of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) using a detailed kinetic model. The chemical kinetics software CHEMKIN is used to facilitate solutions in a constant volume reactor and a variable volume reactor, with the latter representing an IC engine. Experimental shock tube and HCCI engine data from literature is compared with the present predictions in these two reactors. The model is then used to conduct a parametric study in the constant volume reactor of the effect of inlet pressure, inlet temperature, octane number, fuel/air equivalence ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the autoignition of PRF/air mixtures. A number of interesting characteristics are demonstrated in the parametric study. In particular, it is observed that PRFs can exhibit single or two stage ignition depending on the inlet temperature. The total ignition delay, whether single or two stage, is correlated withn-C7H16/O2 ratio.
Technical Paper

Application of Combustion Sound Level (CSL) Analysis for Powertrain

2009-05-19
2009-01-2168
Powertrain noise is a significant factor in determination of the overall vehicle refinement expected by today's discriminating automotive customer. Development of a powertrain to meet these expectations requires a thorough understanding of the contributing noise sources. Specifically, combustion noise greatly impacts the perception of sound levels and quality. The relevance of combustion noise development has increased with the advent of newer efficiency-driven technologies such as direct injection or homogeneous charge compression ignition. This paper discusses the application of a CSL (Combustion Sound Level) analysis-a method for the identification and optimization of combustion noise. Using CSL, it is possible to separate mechanical and combustion noise sources.
Technical Paper

Low Rhodium Catalyst Technology for Gasoline and FFV Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1070
An investigation into the design, development and evaluation of a “new” washcoat technology family that enables significant reductions in rhodium usage levels has been concluded. These findings were demonstrated on three vehicle applications utilizing different calibration A/F control strategies. Additional testing investigated optimal Rh placement on a two brick catalyst system and the impact on FTP and US-06 test cycles. This study concludes with an evaluation of full useful life aged catalysts tested on 6 and 8 cylinder applications that are shown to have met Bin 4 FFV and ULEVII emission standards.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
Technical Paper

Application of Kinetics of Thermal Degradation for Time-Temperature Analysis of Automotive Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-1178
A fundamental problem in the development of automotive thermal protection strategies is the understanding of the effect of time and temperature on vehicle components life and their performance throughout the life of the vehicle. Due to restrictions on emissions and the stringent requirements for improved fuel economy, the use of polymers and synthetic materials has been widely adopted in automotive applications. It is therefore critical to develop a process to estimate life of engineering materials based on thermal testing and material physical properties. While a series of carefully selected vehicle tests can determine components temperatures during different testing conditions, a need still exists to determine the expected component life and performance throughout the life of the vehicle. Kinetic models have been widely used, in literature, to determine the aging of polymeric and composite materials over time.
Technical Paper

A Method for Obtaining Optimum Fuel Economy Performance using Transient Combustion Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0243
An experiment was conducted testing a powertrain package consisting of a four cylinder four valve engine coupled to a four speed automatic transmission in a dynamometer test cell. Cylinder pressure transducers, an encoder, and other instrumentation were used to measure transient combustion events. The transient cycle chosen for testing was a Cold 80 of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) that produces a standardized fuel economy value. After analyzing the combustion events, a determination was made between the spark advance delivered and a revised spark advance for optimum combustion efficiency. Based upon the relationship between spark advance and fuel consumption, a prediction for the improved fuel consumption was made. The testing was then repeated to evaluate the revised spark advance and the fuel economy benefits in comparison to the predicted values.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine with Different Fuels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0325
This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of the mixing and combustion of ethanol and gasoline in a single-cylinder 3-valve direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The numerical simulations are conducted with the KIVA code with global reaction models. However, an ignition delay model mitigates some of the deficiencies of the global one-step reaction model and is implemented via a two-dimensional look-up table, which was created using available detailed kinetics models. Simulations demonstrate the problems faced by ethanol operated engines and indicate that some of the strategies used for emission control and downsizing of gasoline engines can be employed for enhancing the combustion efficiency of ethanol operated engines.
Technical Paper

3 Load Cell Tumble Meter Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-3004
This paper will describe the development of the 3-load cell tumble meter. This is a new method for measuring the tumble component of in-cylinder mixture motion. In-cylinder mixture motion is an important parameter for understanding and improving combustion stability of piston engines.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

2008-09-09
2008-32-0028
To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

A Scalable Engine Management System Architecture for Motorcycle/Small-Vehicle Application

2008-09-09
2008-32-0054
This paper gives an overview of a scalable engine management system architecture for motorcycle and other small engine based vehicle applications. The system can accommodate any engine sizes and up to four cylinders. The architecture incorporates advanced functionalities such as oxygen sensing, closed loop fueling, wall-wetting compensation, purge control, start & idle control and deceleration fuel cut-off. Additionally, a number of vehicle-related controls are integrated in the system. Diagnostic and safety related features have also been incorporated with limp-home capability. The software architecture is compatible with different hardware solutions. The system has been implemented in several OEM vehicles around the globe and meets EURO-3 emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

The Impact of E85 Use on Lubricant Performance

2008-06-23
2008-01-1763
Ethanol is widely used as a gasoline component to provide a prescribed amount of oxygenates and for its perceived advantages of less dependence on petroleum based products and lowering overall CO2 emissions. In most cases the level of ethanol in gasoline does not exceed 10%. In some parts of the Unites States, E85 fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline is commonly available. Many US vehicles sold today are specially adapted for use of both gasoline and high ethanol fuels; so-called Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV). While high ethanol fuels are currently a small percentage of the overall gasoline pool, they provide an interesting opportunity to study the effects that ethanol use in gasoline may have on lubricant related performance. Based on past industry experience with methanol based fuel, theoretical areas of concern for ethanol based fuels are valve train rust and potential problems associated with high amounts of water in the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Method to Efficiently Implement Automotive Application Algorithms Using Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of Copperhead Microcontroller

2008-04-14
2008-01-1222
This paper presents the studies on how to efficiently and easily implement ECU application algorithms using the Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of the Copperhead microcontroller. With the introduced development and testing concepts and methods, users can easily establish their own PC based SPE emulation system. All application unit testing and verification work for the fixed point implementation using SPE functions can be easily conducted in PC without relying on a costly real time test bench and expensive third party dedicated software. With this simple development environment, the code can be run in both embedded controllers and PCs with exact bit to bit numerical behavior. The paper also demonstrates many other benefits such as code statistics information retrieval, floating simulation mode, automated code verification, online and offline code sharing.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Journal Article

Parametric Shape Optimization

2008-04-14
2008-01-1431
External aerodynamic simulations are becoming more important because of regulatory pressures on fuel economy improvements and shorter design cycles. Experimental work is typically done on scaled models to get drag and cooling flow information. This is a time consuming process. Numerical simulations might provide a complementary path to get the answers in a timely manner. This paper discusses one such approach.
Journal Article

Microstructural Effects on Residual Stress, Retained Austenite, and Case Depth of Carburized Automotive Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1422
SAE 8620 and other steels are typically used in the carburized condition for powertrain applications in the automotive industry, i.e., differential ring gears, camshafts, and transmission gears. Although current recommended carburizing practice involves normalizing the steel prior to carburizing, elimination of this normalizing treatment could lead to significant cost reductions. This research examines whether the normalizing process prior to carburizing could be eliminated without negatively affecting part performance. This study focused on the effects of the initial microstructure on the residual stress, retained austenite, and effective case depths of carburized SAE 8620 and PS-18 steels.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Residual Gas Fraction Measurement Techniques in a High Degree of Freedom Spark Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0094
Stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have driven development of new mixture preparation technologies and increased spark-ignition engine complexity. Additional degrees of freedom, brought about by devices such as cam phasers and charge motion control valves, enable greater range and flexibility in engine control. This permits significant gains in fuel efficiency and emission control, but creates challenges related to proper engine control and calibration techniques. Accurate experimental characterization of high degree of freedom engines is essential for addressing the controls challenge. In particular, this paper focuses on the evaluation of three experimental residual gas fraction measurement techniques for use in a spark ignition engine equipped with dual-independent variable camshaft phasing (VVT).
Journal Article

Steady and Transient CFD Approach for Port Optimization

2008-04-14
2008-01-1430
The intake and exhaust port design plays a substantial role in performance of combustion systems. The port design determines the volumetric efficiency and in-cylinder charge motion of the spark-ignited engine which influences the thermodynamic properties directly related to the power output, emissions, fuel consumption and NVH properties. Thus intake port has to be appropriately designed to fulfill the required charge motion and high flow performance. While turbulence intensity and air-mixture quality affect dilution tolerance and fuel economy as a result, breathing ability affects wide open throttle performance. Traditional approaches require experimental techniques to reach a target balance between the charge motion and breathing capacity. Such techniques do not necessarily result in an optimized solution.
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