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Technical Paper

Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

2019-04-02
2019-01-0521
Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens.
Technical Paper

A Systems Approach in Developing an Ultralightweight Outside Mounted Rearview Mirror Using Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics

2019-04-02
2019-01-1124
Fuel efficiency improvement in automobiles has been a topic of great interest over the past few years, especially with the introduction of the new CAFE 2025 standards. Although there are multiple ways of improving the fuel efficiency of an automobile, lightweighting is one of the most common approaches taken by many automotive manufacturers. Lightweighting is even more significant in electric vehicles as it directly affects the range of the vehicle. Amidst this context of lightweighting, the use of composite materials as alternatives to metals has been proven in the past to help achieve substantial weight reduction. The focus of using composites for weight reduction has however been typically limited to major structural components, such as BiW and closures, due to high material costs. Secondary structural components which contribute approximately 30% of the vehicle weight are usually neglected by these weight reduction studies.
Technical Paper

Detection of Presence and Posture of Vehicle Occupants Using a Capacitance Sensing Mat

2019-04-02
2019-01-1232
Capacitance sensing is the technology that detects the presence of nearby objects by measuring the change in capacitance. A change in capacitance is triggered either by a change in dielectric constant, area of overlap or distance of separation between the electrodes of the capacitor. It is a technology that finds wide use in applications such as touch screens, proximity sensing etc. Drawing motivation from such applications, this paper investigates how capacitive sensing can be employed to detect the presence and posture of occupants inside vehicles. Compared to existing solutions, the proposed approach is low-cost, easy to deploy and highly efficient. The sensing system consists of a capacitance-sensing mat that is embedded with copper foils and an associated sensing circuitry. Inside the mat the foils are arranged in rows and columns to form several touch-nodes across the surface of the mat.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Multi-Scale Model Development for Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0226
This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
Technical Paper

Determination of Fracture Strain of Advanced High Strength Steels Using Digital Image Correlation in Combination with Thinning Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0314
Fracture strain data provide essential information for material selection and serve as an important failure criterion in computer simulations of crash events. Traditionally, the fracture strain was measured by evaluating the thinning at fracture using tools such as a microscope or a point micrometer. In the recent decades, digital image correlation (DIC) has evolved as an advanced optical technique to record full-field strain history of materials during deformation. Using this technique, a complete set of the fracture strains (including major, minor, and thickness strains) can be approximated for the material. However, results directly obtained from the DIC can be dependent on the experiment setup and evaluation parameters, which potentially introduce errors to the reported values.
Journal Article

IIoT-Enabled Production System for Composite Intensive Vehicle Manufacturing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0290
The advancements in automation, big data computing and high bandwidth networking has expedited the realization of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). IIoT has made inroads into many sectors including automotive, semiconductors, electronics, etc. Particularly, it has created numerous opportunities in the automotive manufacturing sector to realize the new aura of platform concepts such as smart material flow control. This paper provides a thought provoking application of IIoT in automotive composites body shop. By creating a digital twin for every physical part, we no longer need to adhere to the conventional manufacturing processes and layouts, thus opening up new opportunities in terms of equipment and space utilization. The century-old philosophy of the assembly line might not be the best layout for vehicle manufacturing, thus proposing a novel assembly grid layout inspired from a colony of ants working to accomplish a common goal.
Journal Article

Design and Development of a Composite A-Pillar to Reduce Obstruction Angle in Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-0501
In modern passenger vehicles, A-pillar plays an important role in its passive safety by minimizing the deformation of passenger compartment during the crash. To meet various crash requirements, as well as sometimes due to demand of vehicle styling, A-pillar cross section of modern vehicles is generally wider. This wider cross section acts as an increased obstruction to the field of vision of the driver. It is considered detrimental for the safety of road users. The current work proposes an innovative design solution to reduce the obstruction angle due to an A-pillar. It also addresses the weight reduction objective. This is done by utilizing the noble properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) offer flexibility for complex design. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, CFRP's are suitable candidate for design considerations presented in this study.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Journal Article

Effects of Material Properties on Static Load-Deflection and Vibration of a Non-Pneumatic Tire During High-Speed Rolling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0101
The Michelin Tweel tire structure has recently been developed as an innovative non-pneumatic tire which has potential for improved handling, grip, comfort, low energy loss when impacting obstacles and reduced rolling resistance when compared to a traditional pneumatic tire. One of the potential sources of vibration during rolling of a non-pneumatic tire is the buckling phenomenon and snapping back of the spokes in tension when they enter and exit the contact zone. Another source of noise was hypothesized due to a flower petal ring vibration effect due to discrete spoke interaction with the ring and contact with the ground during rolling as the spokes cycle between tension and compression. Transmission of vibration between the ground force, ring and spokes to the hub was also considered to be a significant contributor to vibration and noise characteristics of the Tweel.
Technical Paper

Development of Endurance Testing Apparatus Simulating Wheel Dynamics and Environment on Lunar Terrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0765
This paper entails the design and development of a NASA testing system used to simulate wheel operation in a lunar environment under different loading conditions. The test system was developed to test the design of advanced nonpneumatic wheels to be used on the NASA All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE). The ATHLETE, allowing for easy maneuverability around the lunar surface, provides the capability for many research and exploration opportunities on the lunar surface that were not previously possible. Each leg, having six degrees of freedom, allows the ATHLETE to accomplish many tasks not available on other extra-terrestrial exploration platforms. The robotic vehicle is expected to last longer than previous lunar rovers.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Phase Change Materials for Thermal

2009-04-20
2009-01-0171
Phase change materials (PCMs) are extensively used in many engineering areas for thermal management purposes. This paper investigated the application of PCMs for vehicular systems, especially for the thermal protection of vehicle lighting systems based on light emitting diodes (LEDs). Lighting systems based on LEDs offer many advantages, however, also pose a smaller margin of error for thermal management. This paper analyzed the combined use of PCMs with metal foam for cooling systems. The cooling performance was studied numerically under different porosity values of the metal foam, and different boundary conditions. The cooling performance was also compared to a solid metal sink system (SMS) and was found to offer several distinct cooling characteristics.
Technical Paper

Bonding Strength Modeling of Polyurethane to Vulcanized Rubber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0605
Tires manufactured from polyurethane (PU) have been espoused recently for reduced hysteretic loss, but the material provides poor traction or poor wear resistance in the application, requiring inclusion of a traditional vulcanized rubber tread at the contact surface. The tread can be attached by adhesive methods after the PU body is cured, or the PU can be directly cured to reception sites on the rubber chain molecules unoccupied by crosslinked (vulcanizing) sulfur atoms. This paper provides a study of the two bonding options, both as-manufactured and after dynamic loading representative of tire performance in service. Models of each process are introduced, and an experimental comparison of the bonding strength between each method is made. Results are applied to tire fatigue simulation.
Technical Paper

Design of a Scaled Off-Vehicle Wheel Testing Device for Textile Tread Wear

2009-04-20
2009-01-0562
This paper describes the development of test equipment for determining the wear viability of various lunar wheel tread materials with service lives of up to ten years and 10,000 km. The problem is defined, and concepts are proposed, evaluated, and selected. An abrasive turntable is chosen for simplicity and accuracy of modeling the original wheel configuration. Additionally, the limitations of the test are identified, such as the sensitivity to off-vertical loading, and future work is projected in order to more effectively continue testing. Finally, this paper presents the challenges of collaborative research effort between an undergraduate research team and industry, with government lab representatives as customers
Technical Paper

Wear Resistance of Lunar Wheel Treads Made of Polymeric Fabrics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0065
The purpose of this research is to characterize the wear resistance of wheel treads made of polymeric woven and non-woven fabrics. Experimental research is used to characterize two wear mechanisms: (1) external wear due to large sliding between the tread and rocks, and (2) external wear due to small sliding between the tread and abrasive sand. Experimental setups include an abrasion tester and a small-scale merry-go-round where the tread is attached to a deformable rolling wheel. The wear resistance is characterized using various measures including, quantitatively, by the number of cycles to failure, and qualitatively, by micro-visual inspection of the fibers’ surface. This paper describes the issues related to each experiment and discusses the results obtained with different polymeric materials, fabric densities and sizes. The predominant wear mechanism is identified and should then be used as one of the criteria for further design of the tread.
Technical Paper

Flexible Fabrics with High Thermal Conductivity for Advanced Spacesuits

2006-07-17
2006-01-2236
This paper describes the effort and accomplishments for developing flexible fabrics with high thermal conductivity (FFHTC) for spacesuits to improve thermal performance, lower weight and reduce complexity. Commercial and additional space exploration applications that require substantial performance enhancements in removal and transport of heat away from equipment as well as from the human body can benefit from this technology. Improvements in thermal conductivity were achieved through the use of modified polymers containing thermally conductive additives. The objective of the FFHTC effort is to significantly improve the thermal conductivity of the liquid cooled ventilation garment by improving the thermal conductivity of the subcomponents (i.e., fabric and plastic tubes).
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